The more recent Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1983) completely opposes this, proposing over seven modalities of intelligence. Robert Sternberg has taken a middle ground (Sternberg, 1999). He admits that there is a huge breadth of evidence for the
The main idea of this theory is that knowledge should not be seen as a single general ability, but a combination of eight distinct forms of intelligence. Psychologist Howard Gardner at Harvard University in 1983 originally proposed the Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory . He defined eight measures of multiple intelligence: linguistics, logical- mathematics, visual-spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, musical, bodily-kinesthetic and naturalist. (Armstrong, 2007; Gardner, 1983). According to MI theory individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences.
These intelligences may not be exhaustive. The eight types of multiple intelligence given by Howard Gardner are: 1) Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence (“Body Smart”): The capacity to manipulate objects and use a variety of physical skills. This intelligence also involves a sense of timing and the perfection of skills through mind–body union. Athletes, dancers, surgeons, and craftspeople exhibit well-developed bodily kinesthetic intelligence 2) Interpersonal Intelligence (“People Smart”): The ability to understand and interact effectively with others. It involves effective verbal and nonverbal communication, the ability to note distinctions among others, sensitivity to the moods and temperaments of others, and the ability to entertain multiple perspectives.
According to Gardner, human intelligence involves a configuration of several complementary abilities in an individual (Owens & Valesky, 2011). This paper analyzes the impact of Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory (MIT) on schools and educators. It will achieve this by discussing the seven MIT intelligences that include linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, music intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence,
Intellect, on the other hand, is the critical, creative, and contemplative side of mind. Whereas intelligence seeks to grasp, manipulate, reorder, adjust, intelligence examines, ponders, wonders, theorizes, criticizes, imagines. Intelligence will seize the immediate meaning in a situation and evaluate it. Intellect evaluates evaluations, and looks for the meaning of a situations as a whole. Intelligence can be praised as a quality in animals; intellect, being a unique manifestation of human dignity, is both praised and assailed as a quality in men” (Hofstadter 1963:25).
For one simple reason, because that the ninth intelligence, meaning the Existential one, has been alluded to by Gardner, yet has never been fully confirmed, endorsed or described. Gardner 's Multiple Intelligences theory is a very useful model for developing a systematic approach to nurturing and teaching children and honouring their individual needs and strengths within a classroom setting. The theory of Multiple Intelligences includes the notion that each person is smart in all seven (or nine) types of intelligences. According to Gardner, each individual possesses each type of intelligence in varying degrees, stronger in some ways and less developed in others. 34 By broadening one’s view of intelligence, as well as valuing and nurturing abilities other than mathematics and reading, doors can be opened by using the strength of children as a means of complementing their less developed area.
Introduction What is intelligence? I think everyone is very curious how intelligent you are. Intelligence is about how you learn from your own experience, how you understand new and complicated ideas, how you solve the obstacles, how you apply what you have learn with one’s environment and many others aspects. Intelligence normally can be divided into two main parts which are traditional intelligence and modern intelligence. Traditional intelligence can be divided into seven main components which included inductive reasoning, memory, numerical acuity, spatial perception, perceptual speed, verbal comprehension and word influence.
Gardner realized intelligence goes beyond being able to learn and retain information. That was why he added interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences to his original seven intelligences (Gardner, 2002). Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory assists supporting the belief that “every individual possesses every single one of the intelligences, but to different extents, and it is through education that each of these intelligences can be nurtured and developed” (Mokhtar, Majid, & Foo, 2008, p. 96). In the theory of multiple intelligences, Gardner tried to show the notion of multiple intelligences. Through his research, Gardner recognized that intelligence is neither fixed nor static.
Human intelligence is something that is hard to comprehend, as it is something that is intangible. Therefore, many attempts have been made in the pursuit of understanding it. As a result of our curiosity, many theories were proposed in order to try to identify the different aspects in huma intelligence, and several tests came up along the way to determine the level of intelligence in people. Robert J. Sternberg, an American psychologist also made a contribution towards understanding intelligence. He proposed the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence which suggests that human intelligence is divided into three different aspects, which are the analytical, creative and practical intelligences.
These are such as problem solving skills, abstract reasoning, adaptability to environment, mental processing, speed, creativity, motivation, goal directed behaviour, sensory activity, and the ability to acquire knowledge as well as many other things. People have begun to believe that intelligence takes different forms depending on the requirement of the environment and the culture that one lives in and is raised in. As a result it has been difficult to develop a clear cut definition of intelligence that will suit to everyone’s belief. Intelligence is the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge .It includes the ability to benefit from the past experience, act purposefully, solve problems and adapt to new