The Metatarsophalangeal Joints are Condyloid Joints which allow various planes of movement. Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction and Circumduction are the various movements that the Metatarsophalangeal Joint can perform. The structure of a Condyloid joint consists of an oval end of a bone that fits into a
A thick, triangular bone which is known as patella lies anterior surface between the femur and tibia. In each knee joint, there is two pieces of C-shaped cartilage which lies between the surfaces of the femur and tibia. The lateral side of the meniscus is known ad lateral meniscus while the medial side is known as medial meniscus. The major role of the menisci is to absorb the impact load between the femur and tibia and also to provide some degree of stabilization to
Bone tissue structure Bone is hierarchically organized. Zooming in the bone structure (Fig. 4a), we find the osteons or Haversian systems, which are the basic unit of structure of compact bone. Osteons consist of concentrically arranged layers, or lamellae, of compact bone tissue, that surround a central canal, the Haversian canal, where bone’s blood supplies and nerves can be found (Fig. 4b).
Stylohyoid ligament is attached to the lesser horn, the hyoid bone is suspended with long stylohyoid ligaments from the styloid process of the temporal bone of the outer skull base and maintains the position of the hyoid bone(4)(1). Anatomically the hyoid is composed of a body, two greater cornua and two lesser cornua. Each cornu is attached to the body by syn- chondrosis that calcifies with ageing. The tip of the cornu are directed postero-laterally. The important attachments of the hyoid are myelohyoid, omohyoid, thyorohyoid and stylohyoid(1).
BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2. Clinical Background 2.1 The human spine The human spine (also referred to as vertebral column or spinal column) is a bony structure in the middle of the back starts at the base of the skull and continues to the pelvis. It consists of vertebrae (small bones) and joints (intervertebral disks) together to form a flexible and stable spinal column. The spinal cord and nerve roots are preserved by the vertebral body, supports the body and responsible for carrying weight. The disks allow movement in the spine and have a shock absorbing.
*The dorsal surface of the carapace has a median row of five vertebral shields, two lateral rows of costal shields or a marginal row of twenty four or twenty five marginal shields. *There are six pairs of shields, overlying the plastron. *These shields are gular, humeral, pectoral, abdominal, femoral and anal. B) Endoskeleton – i) Skull – *The skull is heavy and strong without temporal opening (anapsid condition). * All the skull bones except the lower jaw and the hyoid bone are immovably united together.
It’s contributes to the multiple regions of the skull: anterior cranial fossa, middle cranial fossa, pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal roof, , orbit, lateral wall of the cranial vault and roof and lateral wall of the nasal cavity, It’s articulates with the following bones: The ethmoid bone, the frontal bone, the zygomatic bones, the parietal bones, the temporal bones, the palatine bones, occipital bone and the vomer (Liebgott, 2011). It is consist from four main part : and three paired processes—greater wings, lesser wings and pterygoid processes (Tandon, 2009) 3.1.2 body of sphenoid bone• Its reprecent the central part and contains two sphenoidal air sinuses, It has multiple surfaces: Superior surface—bears a sulcus chiasmaticus and Dorsum sellae with two posterior clinoid processes lie posteriorly Inferior surface—has the rostrum, Two lateral surfaces—Each has a carotid sulcus for internal corotid artery. Anterior surface—presents sphenoidal crest in midline. On either side are openings of sphenoidal air sinuses and sphenoidal concha. Posterior surface fuses with basilar part of occipital bone by 25th year .
Pressure epiphysis is the ‘’secondary centre of ossification that forms at the articular end of a long bone”. Pressure is involved in the formation of joints. The pressure epiphysis assists transmitting the weight of the body. For example, the head of the femur as a component of the hip joint complex, also the head of the humerus, this forms a part of the shoulder complex.
If the arm is then laterally rotated 180 degrees the tubercles are rotated posteriorly and more articular surface becomes available to continue elevation. Circumduction at the joint is an orderly sequence of flexion, abduction, extension and