Mushroom Lab Report

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INTRODUCTION
Mushrooms have been a part of the human diet since time immemorial, involving a large number of edible species. In most countries mushrooms are an important delicacy because of the unique flavor and texture though they do not contribute a significant portion of the human diet [1a].Though more than 2000 species of mushrooms exist in nature, there are only less than 25 species are widely used as food and only a few have commercialized. Mushrooms are an attractive functional food because of their varied chemical constituents [2a]. The traditional use of mushrooms as food and medicine in Asian countries are also known [3a,4a]
Mushrooms are healthy foods rich with proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibers, trace elements and poor in calorie
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The dried mushroom samples were further heated at 105 ºC overnight until constant weight obtained for moisture content determination. The samples were incinerated at 550 ºC for 24 h and reweighed to determine ash content. MicroKjeldahl method was employed for the crude protein content (N × 4.38). The crude fat was determined by extracting a known weight of sample in Soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether as a solvent. Total carbohydrates calculated by the difference. According to the following equation total energy was calculated: total energy (kJ) = 17 × (g crude protein + g total carbohydrate) + 37 × (g crude fat).
Amino acid analysis
Amino acid analysis was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) [14]. 0.1 g of dried mushroom powder was hydrolyzed with 10 ml of 6N HCl in evacuated sealed tubes for 24 hrs at 110 ºC. Later, the hydrolyzed samples were allowed to cool. The sample was filtered using Whatman filter paper; No.42 into a round bottom flask and evaporated till the acid content is completely removed. Finally, the volume was made upto 5 ml with 0.05N HCL and derivatized to phenyl thiocarbomyl amino acid before injected to HPLC.
Fatty acid
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The extracted fatty acids were esterified and then FAMEs were diluted (40 ml FAME sample + 960 ml n-hexane) in the sample vial. 1 μL of methyl esterified sample was injected to the chromatograph (GC-2010, Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan), by an auto injector (AOC-20i, Shimadzu) and capillary column (BPX 70, SGE Analytical Science, Austin, TX). Each elutant was detected by the Flame Ionization Detector (Shimadzu).The conditions set for the analysis were followed as per protocol of Nareshkumar [16]. The split injection mode was used with a split ratio of 1:50 (conditions maintained were as follows: terminal temperature was 225 ºC; nitrogen and air were carrier gases; pressure was set to 114.9 k Pa; total flow was maintained at 68.9 ml/min; and column initial temperature was 100 ºC with temperature increase rate of 5

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