Essay To what extent were the economic policies and rise to power of Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler similar? Benito Mussolini was the Prime Minister of Italy from 1922 until 1943. Adolf Hitler was the furher of Germany from 1933 until 1945. Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler’s economic policies and their rise to power were to a great extent similar. Both men had a strong desire to make their respective countries great.
The early 1900s in Italy brought a number of changes that kept the society unbalanced. In the year 1900 Victor Emmanuel III came into power after his father was assassinated, Mussolini came into power with his Fascist movement, and a new Pope was elected, both in the 1920s. Emmanuel III was a weak man who never felt secure with his position because of his outward appearance (The Pope and Mussolini, pg. xxiii). Mussolini came to power in 1922 and Achille Ratti, later know as Pope Pius the XI, and was also elected in 1922.
Key Events #2 Italian involvement in WWI: Italy was initially neutral in WW1, and it took until a secret meeting on the 26th April 1915, resulting in the Treaty of London, for them to enter the war on the Allies' side. Fighting took place between Italian and Austro-Hungarian forces on Italy's northern border. Of the 5.2 million Italians who served in the war, over 420,000 men were killed. Mussolini’s expulsion from Socialists: Benito Mussolini was born into a family that was supportive of socialism; his father was a staunch socialist who heavily influenced Mussolini's early political views. Mussolini travelled to Switzerland at 19, where he began working for the socialist newspaper 'L'Avvenire del Lavoratore' (The Worker's Future).
Mussolini attempted to rule Italy with a combination of love and fear, but was not successful. When he tried to show love to his people but the groups who were inspired by him showed fear to the nation. Mussolini was hated by the people but was able to gain their support after the fall of Italy. Italy also did not have a lot of natural resources for trade that meant the nation was poor. He went back on all his promises and allied himself with Adolf Hitler.
He was power greedy and tried to take more than he could handle. This can even relate to current events where a country is over expanding in hopes for more power. As a result their economy suffers and their people unsatisfied with life. (Russia) No matter what Mussolini could have done or should have done, he was the one who controlled the people, made the economic decisions, and made bad decisions in general. These decisions were what defined Mussolini and his rise and fall to power as Italy’s
Corruption and organized crime has significant impact on Italy’s economic growth. “Corruption costs Italy an estimated €60 billion annually in wasted public resources, and effectively combating corruption has been a goal for successive Italian governments (Global Security).” Organized crime also affects the Foreign Direct investment; foreign investors have doubt on the corrupt system, therefore hastate on the investment. Italy only managed to attract 1.4 percent of its GDP in foreign direct investment last year, far less than the European average of 3.3 percent
Benito Mussolini’s rise to power began at the beginning of World War I. Benito believed that it was his destiny to rule Italy. In 1919, he forged the parliamentary Fascist movement. He organized many unemployed veterans into a group known as the Black Shirts and they terrorized many government officials. He used this support to march on Rome and present himself to the king as the solution to Italy’s problems. Mussolini became Prime Minister of Italy in 1922.
The production of steel and chemicals was less impressive, while output of finished textiles actually declined.” This shows that the Soviet Union had actually benefitted economically from its production of coal, iron, steel and chemicals. This enabled the Soviet Union to be able to purchase products needed for other aspects such as defence. The ability to be able to purchase military products to defend the Soviet Union from Germany, resulted in the defeat of Germany, hence ensuring the safety of all Russians. Thus, this shows that the Soviet Union’s economy had benefitted from Stalin’s rule, which provided funds for the Soviet Union’s defence, hence keeping the Russians safe from all
However when the Great Depression hit “Americans immediately calling in foreign loans”1. Therefore this meant that the banks of Germany had to give America their money back; taking the German peoples savings, and leaving them financially ruined as they had to collect all of their money from their debtors. This led Germany to a financial crisis. Furthermore, this source has also highlighted other points that have helped Hitler to rise to power, such as, “hyperinflation”1, “propaganda”1, “Hitler was a gifted speaker”1, and, “the Treaty of Versailles”1. Arguably, the Treaty of Versailles, was one of the main points that Charles Hawley made, as it stated that Germany had to pay “132 billion goldmarks”1 in reparations, for the war.
Both countries also signed different pacts and treaties with one another to secure their own rights and strengthen in the world. For example, the Pact of Steel was signed on 22 May 1939, initially considered as a tripartite military alliance between Japan, Italy and Germany. Because of the disagreement on the focus of the pact, it was signed without Japan and became an agreement solely between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Alongside, the Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940, initiated by the main Axis Powers. It was a defensive military alliance, and was consequently joined by other minor Axis Powers such ad Hungary, Romania and Yugoslavia.