Geology of the Hawaiian Island Chain The chain of Hawaiian Islands formed as the Pacific plate moved over a hot spot in the mantle of the Earth. The plate slowly moves northwestward at a rate of about 32 miles per million years. The northwestern islands are older and generally smaller due to prolonged exposure and erosion. Plate tectonics, types of volcanoes, hot spots, and sea mounts, are all an important part of the geology of the hawaiian island chain. Plate tectonics is a theory that Earth’s crust is composed of nearly a dozen plates, which have shifted around the surface of the Earth over time.
When the siphuncle was filled with air, its body floated upward. A burst of air out the back of the siphuncle would push the animal forward.” (fossils-facts-and-finds.com) “The number of families of known marine invertebrates increased from around 200 at the end of the Cambrian period to around 500 in the early Ordovician. The warm and widespread shallow continental seas were the perfect environment for numerous groups of organisms. Micro-organisms such as colonial blue-green algae stromatolites were widespread. Foraminifera, were marine amoebas that built tiny shells.
Birth of Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics is a scientific theory, coined in the 1950s, to explain the large-scale motion of Earth’s lithosphere (the outermost shell of planet Earth). This theory is based on the idea that Earth’s lithosphere is divided into several “plates” that move across the Earth’s surface, relative to each other, gliding over the mantle. The theory of plate tectonics was developed between the 1950s through the 1970s. It is basically the modern version of the theory of continental drift, proposed in 1912, by German scientist Alfred Wegener. His theory however did not explain how continents move around the planet.
The dive explores the submerged remains of two volcanic tuff cones rising from the waters that keep the tides at bay. The back side of the eastern cone is a sloping wall covered in coral that acts as a cleaning station for yellowtail surgeonfish, yellowtail snapper, and schools of reef fish. Eels, rays, and white-tipped reef fish also come to the area to feed. During the descent, sea lions and turtles join you for the journey. Mosquera Located between Baltra and North Seymour Islands, the Mosquera islet has two dive sites to explore.
Trilobites are found in the Tonto Group, Crinoids, Brachiopods the most common animal in the seas, Bryozoans, Corals, Sponges, and Burrows. Another type of layer is called the Terrestrial Fossils. In this layer there are several rock layers and fossils that form this whole layer. Some layers are called the Hermit Shale, Supai Group, Coconino Sandstone, and Surprise Canyon Formation. There are many types of fossils called leaves, Tracks, and Dragonflies.
In our third stop at the San Gabriel Mountains Anorthosite, we learned material about the anorthosite intrusive igneous body that cooled 1.2 billion years ago. On the other hand, the Mint Canyon Formation along Aqua Dulce Road consists of sedimentary rock that is mostly sandstone and conglomerate. On this stop we learned about the sediments that formed the rock and their deposition from a river 12 million year ago. Our two last stops covered material on faults and rocks. The Vasquez Rocks were said to be form from the San Andrea Fault, and the Vista Point of the San Andreas Fault also covered material on the
Coral reefs are involute and various environment. They are maybe a standout amongst the most captivating and brilliant biological communities to be found in the marine environment. They are extremely remarkable from numerous points of view. coral reefs play numerous weight shafts in the marine world. They must have particular conditions to be made, and to survive.
GREAT SALT LAKE: Great Salt Lake we all know is the largest natural river located in the West of Mississippi River. It is approximately 75 miles long and about 35 miles wide. How did the Great Salt Lake originated? Initially Great Salt Lake is a part of Lake Bonneville. Lake Bonneville is a great ice age lake that rose dramatically from a small saline lake 30,000 years ago.
We need to find a reasonable explanation to how Atlantis had sunk to the bottom of the ocean. After we have researched for a while, we finally found an explanation to how Atlantis sunk. We have theorized that an underwater volcano caused a massive earthquake in Atlantis, causing a tsunami to wash over Atlantis and eventually causing it to sink. Our theory is reasonable because, around that time, Europe and Africa had a lot of tsunamis and tsunamis are mainly caused by underwater earthquakes. We have predicted it would be somewhere in Spain because Spain is very near the Pillars of Hercules, it’s surrounding by the Atlantic Ocean and apart of Europe.
Different organisms use different mechanisms for removing the substrate. Parrotfish use well developed jaws to munch on coral and another organism has evolved a interesting mechanism to erode a different substrate for an interesting reason. Osedax is a genus of polychaete worms that live in the deep ocean. In the case of these worms, their name gives a lot of information about their mechanism for survival. Osedax is Latin in origin and means bone-eating.
Within the Brule Formation there is a red paleosol layer (). The Black Hills formed from a completely different geologic process then The Badlands. The Black Hills that we see today formed during the Laramide Orogeny. The uplift from two tectonic plates colliding is what gives The Black Hills its topography. Before the Laramide Orogeny there were igneous rocks that formed from the cooling of magma, sedimentary rocks that were deposited from rivers carrying sediment into a shallow sea, and some metamorphic rocks.
For example, experts say, “The three sets of rocks are differentiated on the basis of not only stratigraphic position, but also age, rock types, and overall geologic setting in which they form.” One of the types of rocks found there are crystalline rocks which are exposed near the bottom of the canyon. Another type is sedimentary and volcanic rocks found in the coastal basins which tilted when the continents split apart. Lastly, the Paleozoic rocks at 3,000-4,000 ft. which is flat-lying sediment rocks that create the “stair step” canyon.
That was just some of the fact about the Baryonyx. There 's more to learn about this magnificent dinosaur and where it lived. The baryonyx ate fish like the Igdabatis,Anomoeodus,Aulolepis and etc. and also young Iguanodons. The baryonyx fossil had fossilised fish skeletons and Iguanodons fossil in it’s stomach and in it’s dung.