Mycorrhiza Research Paper

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Mycorrhiza is a mutualistic association between fungus and plant roots. The fungus develops colonization in the roots of the host plant. The colonization may be intracellular just like Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi or it may b extracellular like in ectomycorrhizal fungi. The hyphal filaments of mychorrhizal fungi efficiently increase the surface area of the root system by rising water and nutrient uptake. Rhizospheric microorganism also contribute to reduce fertilizer application and to increase plant growth and nutrient uptake (medina et al 2002).

Mycorrhiza are usually divided into two categories
1. Ectomycorrhiza: the hyphae of Fungi donot access to individual cell with in the roots
2. Endomycorrhiza: the hyphae of fungi get access to cell wall and transport the cell membrane.
Endomycorrhiza includes the categories., arbuscular, arbutoid, ericoid, monotropoid and orchid mycorrhiza. AMF are wide spread in
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The supply of photosynthates to the microbiota associated with the roots plays an important role in rhizosphere formation and functioning, but AM colonization can be responsible for biological imbalance in the rhizosphere (Amora-Lazcano and Azcón, 1997; Amora-Lazcano et al., 1998; Schreiner et al., 1997). This may be due to the presence of AM mycelium that release energy rich organic compounds and positively affect the presence of inoculated microorganisms (Andrade et al., 1998). Conversely, Christensen and Jacobsen (1993) reported that the amount of plant root-derived organic matter which is available for microbial growth decreased due to the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. This conflicting approach is due to the result of colonization of AM that changes many aspects of plant physiology, according to the conditions (Smith et al., 1994), and also makes modifications in the surrounding root

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