The priorities are to detect intraoperative MI early, give effective treatment, and transfer the patient to ICU urgently for further cardiac care.  When myocardial ischemia is because of hypovolemia, hypotension should be primarily managed with IV fluids in the form of crystalloids or colloids and blood products. Inotropic support is required when there is no response to fluid administration.In this case myocardial ischemic changes were because of hypovolemic shock. Hence by correcting hypotension secondary to hypovolemia the myocardial ischemic changes were reversed.
Myocardial perfusion imaging: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is a form of functional cardiac imaging, used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. The underlying principle is that under conditions of stress, diseased myocardium receives less blood flow than normal myocardium. MPI is one of several types of cardiac stress test. A cardiac specific radiopharmaceutical is administered. E.g.
This type of shock occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood effectively. This is evident to patients who have had myocardial infarction, such as John’s case. In this illness, the heart has decreased contractility resulting to decreased cardiac output. Such decrease will stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to activate the compensatory mechanism by increasing the heart rate as evident in John’s vital sign to increase the peripheral pressure and ventricular
(medicine-on-line.com, n.d.) 2. What changes in “cardiac enzymes” would be consistent with a diagnosis of MI? (4 points; List and describe 3 cardiac enzyme changes consistent with MI.) From the article “Cardiac Enzymes and Markers for Myocardial infratction” by Dr. Colin Tidy (2014), I was able to summarize these cardiac enzyme changes. Creatine kinase is a myocardial muscle
UpToDate: Prior to diagnosis it is important to define the severity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). According to UpToDate, mild disease is often asymptomatic or very mild, moderate disease includes dyspnea on exertion, and dry cough, and decreased pulmonary function tests, and severe disease is characterized by dyspnea on mild exertion and the need for supplemental oxygen. Treatments include supportive care which involves supplemental oxygen when needed, vaccinations against influenza and pneumonia as these are not tolerated well in IPF patients, patient education, and pulmonary rehabilitation. There are some medications that are available that are being tested in clinical trials or already available to patients. These include Nintedanib and Pirfenidone.
FIG : NORMAL HEART FIG : HYPERTROPHIC HEART (Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy,Cleveland clinic) Above figure in the left shows physiology of the normal heart while the right one shows physiology of hypertrophic heart having leaky mitral valve, thickened septum and narrowed outflow tract. Symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: (Marian Ali .,2010) • Arrhythmias: This condition mainly occurs when heart rhythms of the patient are irregular due to improper flow of blood from the heart to rest of the body. This could further lead to cardiac failure along with sudden death of the patient. • Syncope: It does not occur frequently but usually in patients having left ventricular outflow
A treatment option for those who have suffered an ischaemic stroke is thrombolysis. As 85% of strokes are ischaemic this is a treatment option for many (Fitzpatrick and Birns,2004).The goal of thrombolysis is to disintegrate the thrombus/embolus occluding the vessel and reduce the scale of tissue damage (Fitzpatrick and Birns,2004).It is important to note that thrombolysis using ateplase should only be used to treat acute ischaemic stroke once intracranial bleeding has been ruled out by diagnostic imaging, and within 4.5hours of onset by
Today, I will share to you the Ischemia Heart Disease. The Ischemia Heart Disease has been one of the most deadliest disease known for almost 2 decades (20 years). This disease can kill anyone in just one heart stroke. The main idea of this disease is that you get a heart attack due to the fact when plenty of your veins start to fill up of plaque and blood or as known as a blood clot, you get a heart attack. The blood flow and oxygen flow is incorrect or in simple words, the current of blood stops flowing through you body correctly.
These stresses cause a pressure overload which induce changes in myocardial structure and function. This initially acts a compensatory mechanism but when pressure overload persists it can lead to the development of cardiac hypertrophy (Lyon et al., Mechanotransduction in Cardiac Hypertrophy and Failure) . Cardiac hypertrophy is strongly associated with in an increased risk of several severe cardiovascular events, including stroke, coronary heart disease and heart failure (Gosse,
Falls account for a majority of the injuries to patients in long term care facilities. With falls being such a prevalent problem in the geriatric population it is important for nurses to take into account many different aspects of the problem and make it a priority to reduce and even eliminate the problematic issue with the long term care setting. Nurses should be most concerned first about the safety and well being of their clients, injuries, lasting disabilities, and costs associated with the falls. “Falls account for a significant portion of injuries in hospitalized patients, long term care residents, and home care recipients. In the context of the population it serves, the services it provides, and its environment of care, the organization