The chloride ion is more polar since it is above bromine on the periodic table and is more prone to hydrogen bonding due to its smaller size. Chloride ions are worse than bromine ions for nucleophilic attack, because the chloride ions are fully solvated and are not as available to attack. This is why Bromine ion is better nucleophile because is less electronegative and is willing to give up electrons. 3. What is the principal organic by-product of these two reactions?
Moreover, it can be seen that the cooling capacity could gain 685.4 W when Tg = 65 °C and 482.8 W when Tg = 55 °C. With the increase in generating temperature, the cooling capacity decreased at first and then increased when the generating temperatures ranged from 40 °C to 70 °C. The experiment was repeated under the same conditions. Figure 4 illustrates the effect of the generating temperature on the system COP, cooling capacity and critical condensing temperature of the steam ejector when the generating temperatures ranged from 60 °C to 70 °C. As shown in Fig.
That means that there was a small lag phase. As the initial crude oil concentration increased to 20 and 40 ml/L the lag phase raised. In fact, it was found that the lag phase was increased when the initial crude oil concentration was higher due to the slower cell adaptation. This shows that the toxicity of crude oil inhibited MS1 strain at high concentrations (19, 33). Varius types of kinetic substrate consumption and inhibition models have been used to explain the dynamics of microbial growth on different compounds for example Phenol, Toluene, Benzene and p-cresol (16, 32, 34).
Fig. 6 (a) shows the effect of hydrogen peroxide increase on the MB removal at constant pH 3 and Fe3+ of 40 mg/L. The results show that the degradation rate of MB increases with an increase in initial H2O2 concentration from 100 to 400 mg/L, but in excess of about 400 mg/L; the H2O2 dose of 1000 mg/L, plot of the reaction rate curve is almost horizontal. This could be illustrated that the presence of H2O2 beyond the ratio with Fe3+ does not improve the MB degradation. According to Murry and Parson (2004) hydrogen
This was displayed in table 1, where the final temperatures of the water are lower compared to the initial temperatures, showing that the potassium chloride took heat energy away from the 20 mL of water. Endothermic deicers work slower than exothermic deicers, because endothermic deicers require warmer temperatures to dissolve, which makes them inferior when environmental temperatures are very low. Additionally, exothermic deicers will release energy as heat when the compounds dissociate, consequently, melting snow and ice faster.4 Furthermore, when comparing the enthalpy of dissolution of potassium chloride to magnesium chlorides value of -270, the most exothermic value in table 2, potassium chloride is shown to be a significantly worse deicer. Magnesium chloride being notably exothermic means that the compound can dissolve at low temperatures and releases copious amounts of heat
Benzene, hydrogen and recycled cyclohexane with platinum catalyst contains low sulfur poisoning while nickel catalyst are permanently poisoned by sulfur. ()Cyclohexane from petroleum is a complicated process which yields 85 wt. % purity. It is not a widely used method due to the close range of boiling points between byproducts dimethyl pentanes in natural cyclohexane concentrate. “It’s impractical to produce high purity yield.” () Physical and Chemical Properties Cyclohexane is a highly flammable liquid.
It was well known that the collisions between enzyme and substrate molecules increased with an increase in temperature that result in an increase in reaction rate and thus the conversion. It was observed that with an increase in enzyme loading from 1-2% (w/w) increase in percentage conversion. Usually, an increase in enzyme loading increases the number of active sites and therefore more substrate molecules converted into products. The highest conversion could be attained when the enzyme loading was taken to be 2% in combination with the temperature 50 ˚C. The extent of reaction was found to decrease with an increase in temperature from 50 to 60ºC.
Ionic liquids can produce higher ionic strength in solution medium and it is a possible reason for decreasing of solubility in acidic medium whenever CVD is fully ionized. Similar pattern is observed in solubility studies of CVD and corresponding IL forms in HCl 0.1 M and 0.01 M. However, solubility was considerably improved in compared with HCl 0.1 M, 0.2 M). It could be related to the low concentration of chloride ion. The maximum solubility was observed in CVD because in this pH, it is fully ionized and ionic strength in compared with CVD is less than CVD’s ionic
As a result, the number of carbons in a straight chain alkane increases, alkanes become less flammable.  Alkane’s volatility decreases with the increase of the number of carbons in the chain. Volatility refers to the ability of a liquid to change into a vapour state which is the state that substances burn in.  Propane’s Properties . Being odourless and colourless, propane follows the chemical properties of an alkane.
The molecular weight of a substance has a great influence to its rate of diffusion. The results from the experiment showed that a substance with a lower molecular weight like potassium permanganate has a high rate of diffusion unlike other substances with high molecular weight because of the number of diffusible molecules. If there is a high quantity of diffusible molecules present in a substance, most likely, it will have a slow rate of diffusion. More accurate results can be achieved by considering various factors like the correct handling of specimens, the type of medium where diffusion is taking place, temperature, equal amount of substance used, and others. LITERATURE CITED Brown, LeMay, Bursten.
The pH of the buffer was closest to 4 during the 1st titration with NaOH. However, during the last 3 titrations, the initial pH of the buffers were much less than 4. The reason this occur may also been due to the presence of CO2 in the room that may have reacted with hydrogen ions in, forming carbonic acid. This would make the pH lower throughout the rest of the