The hydroxyl group (-OH) of NaOH attacks an electrophilic carbon of >N-C=O which as rearrangement gives carbonial . This carbonial abstract proton from water to give NAG. The established over degradation of NAG to 4-MBA was also obseved in alkali condition. Degradation pathway of AN is shown in Fig.3. The isolated degradation products are subjected to Mass studies to obtain their accurate mass fragment patterns.
TLC was used to identify the actual unknown product as well as other products/reactants present in the filtered solution. The procedure was conducted by placing a TLC plate in a developing chamber that is filled with a small amount of solvent. The solvent cannot be too polar because it will cause spotted compounds on the TLC plate to rise up too fast, while a very non-polar solvent will not allow the spots to move. The polarity of the spots also determines how far it moves on the plate; non-polar spots are higher than polar ones. After spots on the TLC form, the Rf values are calculated and used to analyze the similarity of the compounds.
In this experiment, different properties of stereoisomers, specifically enantiomers and diastereomers, were analyzed. R-Carvone and S-Carvone, which are enantiomers, were analyzed for opposite plane polarization and different odor. An isomerization was performed on dimethyl maleate to convert it into dimethyl fumarate, a diastereomer. Isomers are compounds with the same empirical formula, but with different arrangements of the elements. Enantiomers, a type of isomer, are two compounds that are chemically similar, but are arranged as non-superimposable mirror images of each other.
SYSTEM SUITABILITY THEORETICAL PLATES: A standard solution of 25 µg mL-1of Amoxicillin trihydrate (in triplicate) was prepared and same was injected, then the system suitability parameters were calculated. Theoretical plates per meter Theoretical plates per meter were calculated from the data obtained from the peak using the following expression n = (5.54Vr2)/LWh2 Theoretical plates per column Theoretical plates column were calculated from the data obtained from the peak. n = (5.54Vr2)/Wh2 Where, ‘n’ is number of theoretical plates per meter, ‘Vr’ is the distance along the base line between the point of injection and a perpendicular dropped from the maximum of the peak of interest and ‘Wh’ is the width of the peak of interest at half peak
Their different molecular conformations give them different. inter-molecular packing. These forms are created by controlling the crystallisation supersaturation. The α form is less stable than the β form because α amino groups are directed towards the crystals surface while the carboxyl remains below. From theory the α The longer the β crystal is allowed grow in solution at a high temperature the more stable it becomes due to its changing lattice.
Depending on where the nitronium group or the alpha complexes of the reaction is on the ring, determines whether the product will be meta, para or ortho. The energy required for ortho and para positions are much lower than if the atom is in a meta position. The reaction below illustrates the different products that can be formed: The bromine atom that is present in the reaction is an ortho-para director because it favors the formation of the product to be either ortho or para instead of being in a meta position. In addition, the presence of an electron withdrawing group or electron releasing group aids in determining whether the products will be in a meta, ortho or para position. The presence of an electron releasing group, in this reaction it is the bromine atom, the nitronium group will be attached in wither the ortho or para position.
In contrast to benzene, the electron density is not evenly distributed over the ring, reflecting the negative inductive effect of the nitrogen atom. For this reason, pyridine has a dipole moment and a weaker resonant stabilization than benzene (resonance energy) Production Chichibabin synthesis In its general form, the reaction can be described as a condensation reaction of aldehydes, ketones, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, or any combination of the above, in ammonia or ammonia derivatives.  In particular, unsubstituted pyridine is produced from formaldehyde and acetaldehyde Formation of acrolein from acetaldehyde and
The study of time, enzyme loading, temperature, molar ratio and speed of agitation were studied in a solvent free system at a time. The lipase catalyzed synthesis of flavor involves interactions among several variables, therefore traditional method is inefficient for optimization of reaction. Response surface methodology (RSM) is a statistical model approach for empirical modelling which evaluates the effect of individual and interaction effects of the process parameters on the corresponding response value. In preliminary single factor method analysis the molar ratio, enzyme loading and temperature were showing significant effects on esterification synthesis, thus these variables were selected for study response surface methodology. Design Expert 7.0 software was used for the designing the experiments and for analysis of the data.
The melting points for the acidic and neutral compounds were hence too low, and the melting point for the basic compound was too high. The errors in the acidic and neutral compounds can be explained by impurities in the crude product, along with the presence of the solvents, ethyl acetate and water, which disturbed the stability of the compounds, and led to lower melting points over a larger range. The abnormally high melting point of the base may have been observed due to improper separation of the acid and base solutions in the separation funnel. Some of the acidic compound may have entered the basic solution and reacted with the base to form a high melting point salt, making the melting point of the base appear abnormally high. The Mel-Temp was also turned on a high setting accidentally, so it is possible that the temperature rose too quickly to get a good reading of the melting
4. Condensation: It is a sort of side-chain elongation where malonyl CoAs are attached to hydroxycinnamates, CO2 is liberated and acetate unit gets joined and further the output products are flavonoids. [Place Figure 17.3 here] The phenylpropanoid group is one of the most diverse group having great variations in their structure and functions. The colour producing phenylpropanoid products are flavonoids and anthocyanins produced by condensation reactions. Synthesis of flavonoids, anthocyanins and anthocynidins: Flavonoids are coloured compounds imparting colours ranging from red, yellow, scarlet, violet, and blue and so on.