Because nanotechnology is essentially a set of techniques that allow manipulation of properties at a very small scale, it can have many applications in all parts of life. Nanotechnology is viewed broadly as many technologies over time are expected to generate numerous new products and applications. Lux Research, Inc., the New York-based nanotechnology research and advocacy firm, predicts that by 2015 products that incorporate nanotechnology will constitute 15 percent of global manufacturing output and will total $3 trillion. Products of nanotechnology are diverse and growing exponentially. According to the NNI, nanoparticles and nanoscale materials are used in many industries, including electronics, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, energy, and biomedical, among others.
Graphite occurs as layered planar structures and each layer carbon atoms are arranged in a hexagonal lattices. Single walled carbon nanotube is obtained on rolling up a single sheet of graphite called the graphene. CNTs are cylindrically arranged carbon molecules which have exceptional physical and thermal capabilities. The electrical properties of the Carbon nanotube is determined based on the type of rolling, the diameter and a few other factors. The two predominant type of rolled structures of a nanotubes are Zig-Zag and Arm Chair.
2. Electric arc furnace step: The cold charged materials (DRIor scrap) are melted and the tapping temperature is adjusted by electric energy. The CONARC process starts with charging of hot metal into a liquid heel, small part of the previous melt kept in the furnace. As soon as the top-lance is being brought only the position, the oxygen blowing is initiated, during the converter phase; the content of carbon, silicon; manganese and phosphorus in the bath are reduced. The reactions are exothermic, so large amount of heat energies are generated.
CARBON NANO TUBES INTRODUCTION: Carbonnanotubes are the allotropes of carbon with the cylindrical nanostructure . They are less than 100 nm in dia and can be thin as 1 or 2nm. Carbon Nanotubes are long and thin cylinders of carbon. These are large macromolecules that are unique for the properties they exhibit. They can be imagined as a sheet of graphite rolled into the cylinder.
Excessively addition of coagulants can be avoided by using EC, due to the generation of the coagulants by electro oxidation of a sacrificial anode. EC has easy operation and simple equipment. The most common electrode materials used for EC are aluminum and iron. They are readily available, economical, very effective. When aluminum is used as electrode material, the reactions
Nanotubes In 2014, researchers at University of California, Riverside developed a battery that charges up to 16 times faster with 60% additional energy density. This was done using a 3D, cone-shaped cluster of carbon nanotubes. Also in that year, researchers at Northwestern University found that metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) accommodate lithium much more efficiently than their semiconducting counterparts. If made denser, they claim that semiconducting SWCNT films can take up lithium at levels close to metallic SWCNTs. 2.2.
The feed composition for this process has a NH3/CO2 ratio of 3.5:1 and is fed to the autoclave operating at a pressure of 200 atm. There is a conversion of 60% of the ammonium carbamate into urea. Absorption is used for recovering the unreacted gases partially by a recycle. Recent modification to this process includes adding of another autoclave in parallel so as to increase the conversion above 60% and for minimizing the effect of received water. Where one autoclave has an inlet feed of ammonia and carbon dioxide and the other autoclave has ammonium carbamate as the feed for
1.1 General Creation of new materials with novel properties is the main driving force for the development of materials science and technology. Properties of materials are not simply influenced by the chemical bonding and composition, but likewise by the dimensions of materials. As the dimension of a material system reduces to the nm-scale, unique physical and chemical characteristics arise. Nano- materials have been mass fabricated by novel synthetic approaches, and have pulled a great deal interest from scientists and engineers. One interesting case of the nano- materials is carbon nanotubes (CNTs).
Nowadays, there are numerous methods to synthesize rotaxanes. In general, there are 4 common approaches, namely capping, clipping, slipping and active template method. Each of them will be briefly introduced as follow. Capping method, which is also known as “stoppering”, requires the preparation of a pseudorotaxane precursor, which comprises of a linear moleculae threaded through a macrocyclic one. Then both ends are capped by 2 sufficiently large groups to form a  rotaxane.2 Figure 4.
(4) Nanotechnology provides a mean to decrease the use of energy and other resources. (5) Nanotechnology provides a mean to efficient production of energy and other resources. (6) Nanotechnology is capable of changing the basis of technology of human when it's mature. (7) By solving basic and specific problems of all ages of people in the society, nanotechnology is able to secure to the economy of the world once it is fully implemented. (8) Nanotechnology can solve basic problems of the society like nutritious food, clean drinking