Nanotechnology Research Paper

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Nanotechnology in science, engineering and technology represents the study of phenomena and the manipulation of materials at nanoscale, which is about 1 to 100 nanometers. At nanoscale, the properties of materials are unique and in most of the cases are dramatically improved from the properties of individual atoms due to increase in relative surface area and quantum effects. The unique properties of nanomaterials provide its beneficial use in various fields such as medicine, microelectronics, agriculture, material sciences etc. The construction industry is a new field for nanotechnology and is growing rapidly for the last few years. Nanotechnology based products can improve the current construction materials. Nanotechnology in construction…show more content…
Nanotechnology is the study of phenomena and the manipulation of materials at nanoscale. Nanotechnology is deals with the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, material science, and engineering. The nanotechnology is not a new technology, it is the re-engineering of materials by controlling their shape and size at the nanoscale (Mann1). The key in nanotechnology is the size of particles because at the nanoscale, the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials are unique and dramatically improved from the properties of individual atoms and molecules or bulk matter (Balaguru & Chong2). These properties are improved due to increase in relative surface area and new quantum…show more content…
Nanomaterials are materials having at least one dimension between 1—100 nanometers but these can be nanoscale in one dimensions, two dimensions or/and three dimensions. There are some nanoparticles which occur naturally, but most practically used are synthetic nanomaterials. Synthetic nanomaterials having common types such as nanotubes, quantum dots, nanowires and nanorods (Alagarasi3). There are different synthetic methods for nanomaterials. These methods can be split into two approachs "bottom up" and "top down”. Broken down of bulk metal into powder and then into nanoparticles known as “top down” and having common example mechanical grinding. This approach requires larger amount of materials and can lead to waste if excess material is discarded. In "bottom up" approach, atoms are combined into nanostructured arrays, which can be time-consuming but this approach has higher purity, better particle size/surface chemistry control as compared to “top down” approach. The common example of this approach is self-assembly. Some new processes within the top-down and bottom-up approach are chemical vapour deposition, molecular beam epitaxy, atomic layer epitaxy, dip pen lithography, nanoimprint lithography and roll-to-roll

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