Nao Fluids Case Study Solution

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CHAPTER-2
NANO FLUIDS
Nano fluids are a new kind of approach for heat transfer applications. Nano fluids are containing nanoparticles having size of 1–100 nm, which are uniformly and stably suspended in a base fluid. Generally metals or metal-oxides used as Nanoparticles and they greatly enhance the thermal conductivity of the Nano fluids. Nano fluids have been considered for so many industrial applications for advanced heat transfer fluids for two decades. However, due to complexity of the Nano fluid systems, there is no agreement has been achieved in heat transfer processes. Nano fluids have the following advantages:
• Nano fluids have broad surface area and more heat transfer rate occurs between particles and base fluids.
• High dispersal
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Heat rejection requirements are persistently increasing for technological devices due to scaling down of their sizes. It is now broadly allowed that the thermal management in Nano size devices acts a critical role in controlling their stability and performance. It was stated that, due to the scaling down phenomenon and raising processing speeds which causes the power density to double every 3 years, device temperatures are reaching levels that will prevent their reliable operation. At the macro scale aspect, the problem is also small for internal combustion (IC) engines. With extended surfaces such as fins and pipes stretched to their limits and new technics to improve the thermal properties of cold fluids are of great interest. Nano fluids offer a auspicious way forward to meet these cooling needs. The lighter heat exchangers could be designed, high flow velocities could be reduced leading to reduced pumping power requirements and less erosion of piping elements, and cooling and lubrication during machining operations could be improved.
Over the past decade, research institutes in the worldwide have established research groups or interdisciplinary Nano fluids centers. Small businesses and large multinational companies are working on Nano fluids. These fluids are a new field of scientific research which has grown tremendously
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In the one-step technique combines the production of nanoparticles and dispersion of nanoparticles in the base fluid into a single step. There are some variations of this technique. In one of the common methods, named direct evaporation one-step method, the Nano fluid is produced by the solidification of the nanoparticles, which are initially gas phase, inside the base fluid. The dispersion characteristics of Nano fluids produced with one-step techniques are better than those produced with two-step technique. The main drawback of one-step techniques is that they are not proper for mass production, which limits their

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