Chemiluminescence is the process of generating light through a chemical reaction. This is due to the product of an excited electronic state that release a photon, or light, as it returns to the ground state. An excited electronic state is caused by the promotion of an electron to another orbital. The energy used to promote the electron will be lost either a radiationless energy or through the release of visible light, such as with the cases of fluorescence—involving the singlet electronic state, which has two unpaired electron with opposite spin quantum numbers—and phosphorescence—involving the triplet electronic state. Which has two unpaired electrons with the same spin quantum
Michael Bent Mohamed Mire CHEM 220-12 4/13/2016 Methyl Benzoate Labs The first part of the lab regarded an esterification leading to the formation of Methyl Benzoate (C8H8O2). The purpose of this lab was to convert benzoic acid to methyl benzoate by means of utilizing a reflux acid catalyzed reaction with methanol; purity of the final product was assessed by means of both proton and carbon NMR. The extent to which a reaction’s products are reverted back into the original reactants is denoted by the equilibrium constant. The esterification reaction that's taking place in this lab has a low equilibrium constant (about 2.3) which means that a very low yield of the methyl benzoate product would be generated. There are a couple of mechanisms that
Because it is a tertiary benzylic halide, the reaction is considered an SN1 type. To test the purity, the class then uses a TLC. When one places,” a spot of the substance on the absorbent surface of the TLC plate, the solvent (or solvents) run up through the absorbent,” (Zubrick223). The initial mass of the reactant, triphenylmethyl chloride was 2.006 grams. The experiment yield is 1.589g, which is a 80.3% yield.
2. Experimental procedure 2.1. Chemicals and materials Melamine (99%), titanium dioxide with anatase (99.7%), isoniazid (ISN, >99%), isopropanol anhydrous (IPA, 99.5%), 1, 4-benzoquinone (BQ, ≥98%) and ammonium oxalate (AO, ≥99%) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich. The molecular structure and chemical properties of isoniazid are given in Table 1. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 99%) and methanol (MeOH, analysis grade) was purchased from Merck Millipore, Germany.
The current flows because of the electric potential (V), sometimes referred to as the voltage, applied to a circuit. In much the same way that a gravitational potential will cause mass to move, the electric potential will cause electrons to move. If you lift a book and release it from a height (high gravitational potential) it will fall downward (to a lower potential). The electric potential works in a similar way; if one point of the circuit has a high electric potential, it means that it has a net positive charge and another point of the circuit with a low potential will have a net negative charge. Electrons in a wire will flow from low electric potential with its net negative charge to high electric potential with its net positive charge because unlike charges attract and like charges
Isolation of Ecdysterone from Sesuvium portulacastrum As detailed in Figure1, Ecdysterone was isolated from Sesuvium portulacastrum using a sequential extraction process with Chloroform (CHCl3) followed by Methanol (MeOH), after which Alumina column chromatography of MeOH extract was performed. The different fractions were then eluted using varying proportions of CHCl3 and MeOH, resulting in MeOH: CHCl3 (20:80) bioactive fraction. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of MeOH: CHCl3 (20:80) fraction was carried out using a solvent system containing MeOH (15%) and Ethyl Acetate (85%). The TLC plates were visualized by spraying with vanillin- HCl reagent resulting in a UV sensitive band, which on heating, developed green color. The UV sensitive bands were purified using repetitive preparative TLC followed by crystallization.
The main objective of this experiment was the formation of phenacetin from the synthesis of acetaminophen. This was done through a chemical reaction known as the Williamson ether synthesis using techniques of refluxing, vacuum filtration and recrystallization incorporating a mixed solvent system. A further objective of this experiment was to study the formation of the product (phenacetin). Such validation was completed by using techniques for determining the melting point, calculating percent yield, and IR (infrared spectroscopy) of the resultant product. Our reaction yielded 3.696% of phenacetin product.
It is used as a commodity chemical, principally as a starting compound for polyester manufacturing. Figure 4: Molecular Structure of dimethyl terephthalate Dimethyl terephthalate is the organic compound with formula C10H10O4. It is the diester formed from terephthalic acid and methanol. It is a white solid that melts to give a distillable colorless liquid. BACKGROUND ON THE PRODUCT Figure 5: PET
TLC, NMR, and IR spectroscopy were used throughout the process to identify ferrocene and acetylferrocene in addition to evaluating the levels of purity. Evidence: The objective of our experiments was to prepare acetylferrocene from ferrocene. The overall reaction was carried out using 6.1 equivalents of liquid acetic anhydride to 1.8 equivalents of phosphoric acid and concluded with an aqueous workup with NaOH. The initial reaction mixture containing ferrocene, acetic anhydride, and phosphate acid was mixed on a hot stir plate. During this period, reflux was observed, and the mixture appeared dark brown in color.
The melting point of the pure ASA crystals were calculated in order to calculate of absorbance. Iron (III) salicylate dianion must contain the acidified solution Fe3+ in order to measure the absorbance values. The level of the impurity can