Rusell's Theory Of Narcissism

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1.1 Definitions
Narcissism, the common concept of which is self-adoration with an aloofness that denies the need for another person ( Rusell, 1985). Back 1898, Havelock Ellis originally coined the term ‘narcissism’ to apply to auto-eroticism, i.e. a sexual perversion where the person takes himself as a sexual object (Rusell, 1985). While Sigmund Freud defines narcissism as adoration one accords themselves in light of them being an object of sexual desire (Rusell, 1985).
Narcissism are mostly linked with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD), which is a disorder that is characterized by a long standing pattern of grandiosity (either in fantasy or actual behavior), an overwhelming need for admiration, and usually a complete lack of empathy
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The scale used to measure normal narcissism, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, or NPI (Raskin & Terry, 1988) was adopted from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) criteria for NPD (American Psychiatric Association, 1980), to explore potential effects and correlates in nonclinical populations of a trait that, in extreme forms, constitutes a distinct mental disorder (Campbell, Goodie & Foster, 2004). Consistent with convention, we use the terms ‘‘narcissists’’ and ‘‘non-narcissists’’ to describe individuals scoring higher and lower on measures of normal narcissism (Campbell, Goodie & Foster,…show more content…
Narcissists overestimate their own accomplishments and seem pretentious; although self-enhancement bias is common, narcissism is characterized by extreme levels of this bias (Sedikides, 1993). Narcissists often assume that others should lavish them with praise (Byrne & O'Brien, 2014). Narcissists rely on attention and positive evaluations from others to maintain a brittle and exaggerated sense of self-esteem (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). A sense of entitlement is common among narcissists who regularly exploit others and are unwilling to return favors (Byrne & O'Brien, 2014). High levels of narcissism are associated with acting in a self-centered manner, acknowledging it, and not appearing to think or care about the impact that this behavior may have on others (Grafeman et al., 2013). Individuals with narcissistic tendencies may at times exhibit exploitative behaviors such as taking advantage of others or demanding special treatment in efforts to enhance their self-views or simply to indulge their own desires (Soyer et al., 2001).
Perception on
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