Among these four modes, narrative is the one in which the narrator communicates a story directly to the reader. But Traugott and Pratt (1980:250), explain that conversations play an important role in literature that it has been reflected by prose fiction and drama in which it is known as dialogue. Though students of literature tend to think of narrative as a literary genre typical of prose fiction or epic poetry, it is found in a wide number of contexts. Furthermore, two types of narratives are well known namely, fictional narratives, which include the literary genres, and nonfictional (factual) narratives such as that which occur in autobiography and memories. Besides these two big narrative categories there are other categories of narrative seen in: letters, court testimony, news reports, math problems, advertisement, speeches, jokes, interviews, medicine, institutions, formal speeches (e.g., funeral oration, valedictory address etc.
that convincing communication must be appropriate to the particular situation being addressed. The aim of this approach is that what the writer tries to communicate to his hearers. 4.4. Narrative Criticism: It is a method of interpreting biblical narratives with the help of literary theory. This method looks at the biblical narrative not as a historical source that something lies behind the text.
Examine the way in which people narrate their own life Narratives of a person’s life are a story of the self and at the same time, a perspective of a self. These narratives include an event or situation, the narrator, and the feelings or the ideas that the narrator is expressing to the reader. Since these events are recalled from the narrator’s past, the narration is a memory. Since memories do not have fixing components, they are changed individually and are usually unreliable. In addition, narratives of a person’s life often have biased perspectives.
It is translator’s knowledge, experience and level of language finally decides the quality of translation of a text. Thus, translator has to be sensitive and professional. On the other hand, the object of translation aesthetics is the original text and translated text. The origin text should have value to be translated and include the aspects of informative, inspirational, enlightening and descriptive. After knowing the object and subject of translation aesthetic, the other important aspect people should know is that the aesthetic of translation has to suit the local culture.
This marked the shift from the traditional approach to translating, which was largely prescriptive, source-text oriented, linguistic and atomistic to an approach that was descriptive, target-text oriented, functional and systemic (Snell-Hornby, The Turns of Translation Studies 49). Consequently, the linguistic features of the source text ceased to be the central issue of a translation, focusing rather on the target text's function in the target culture. (Snell-Hornby, The Turns of Translation Studies 49). As a result, more and more scholar began discussing the notion of cultural translation in which culture inequivalences were the source of translation problems, rather than the formal, linguistic characteristic of a source text. For this reason, the emphasis shifted from the knowledge of language, i.e.
Translation is the observable fact that has significant impact on routine life. It may include the translation of highly valuable international treaty or it may involve an advertising poster that provides some information to the customers or conveys some message to the visitors in a hotel or restaurant. (Hatim and Munday, 2005, p. 03). Problems in Translation The main problem faced by a translator is the lack of word by word matching between languages. This is fact that each and every language has its own manner of depicting incidents or reality and the translator have to take the unique aspects of both the source and target languages into account while translating.
According to them accepting literal translation means that there’s no cultural translation operation. But obviously there are some obstacles bigger than linguistic ones. They are cultural obstacles and here a transposition in culture is needed. It can be summarized that this definition suggests three things: (a) culture seen as a totality of knowledge and model for perceiving things, (b) immediate connection between culture and behavior and events, and (c) culture 's dependence on norms. It should be noted also that some other definitions claim that both knowledge and material things are parts of culture.
In fact, the translator belongs to a society where he lives in and for which he works. He does not translate for himself; otherwise he would fall out of the communicative box/model. This will be keeping him in the process of communicating with the audience whose participant is a determining factor in translation production. In translation studies, this is generally discussed under the label of ‘sociology of translation’. It includes such topics as the translation market, the role played by the publishing industry and other patrons or agents, the social status and the roles of the translators and their profession, and what Toury (1995, p. 249) has called the translation event: starting with the client’s request for a translation and ending with its reception by other agents on various levels.
Everything comes down to the understanding of a discourse. However, translating cultural differences vanish to some extent because of an enormous demand to produce films. Thus, the film industry is one of the most profitable manufacturers out there. Translating from one language to the other helps to see a film a light of day in other countries. Nevertheless, the quality of translated product is not always the best.
Research Question The main question discussed is: 1. How is the translation of metaphor from source text to the target text considering intercultural translation? Method Source Materials The materials used in this article consisted of two texts, the English drama Macbeth by Shakespeare, and its translation into Farsi by Ashoury, D. (2012). Design This research is a descriptive-analytical one. Thus, the researcher sought to describe and analyze the intercultural relations between an English drama, and its Persian translation in a metaphorical level.