For instance, according to Dr Duane Champagne discusses that the global market and technology are mainly methods of assimilation and can be an obstacle to cultural sovereignty. Furthermore, Champagne suggested that the American government can contradict with one 's cultural values and norms and that can create challenges in attaining cultural sovereignty. His definition of cultural sovereignty is the right for a Native community to decide their own policies, decisions and their visions. It is also the decision on whether to adopt to or reject to new cultural ways and to promote social changes according to cultural norms and world perspective. Mr Deloria warns us against thinking that no government sovereignty have no limitations.
To inquire into the state’s constitution, as postmodernism does, is partly to inquire into the ways in which global political space is partitioned. The world is not naturally divided into differentiated political spaces, and nor is there a single authority to carve up the world. The third one is a deconstruction of identity as it is defined in security and foreign policy discourses. A detailed account of the relationship between the state, violence and identity is to be found in David Campbell’s post-structuralist account of the Bosnian war, in National Deconstruction (1998a). His central argument there is that a particular norm of community has governed the intense violence of the war.
Rawls first addresses the problem of legitimacy questioning how free and equal citizens with irreconcilable conceptions of what is good would be able to justify the distribution of benefits and burdens to one another. In order to solve this problem, Rawls relies on free agreement amongst citizens, thus a conception of justice that all members of a society can agree to on equal terms (Weinar, 2012:4). Secondly, in order to ensure a stable society, the conception of justice must rest on an overlapping consensus amongst citizens – thus individuals will support the same basic law of society for contrasting reasons which are directly related to each one’s own moral beliefs. The achievement of stability in a society, according to Rawls, is directly related to how close a society is to achieving ‘reflective equilibrium’ – in ‘reflective equilibrium’ all individual beliefs held members in a society cohere perfectly with one another, for example my political judgements would support my general political convictions which would in turn support my abstract beliefs about myself and my world. – although this is unattainable, it can be used as a method for justifying our beliefs (Weinar,
Recently, some citizens have also included cultural rights as the elements to the citizenship. These developments were driven by the state, the ruling economic and the political class and other socio-economic classes. They were a function of national conflict and were reflected in the state-citizenship nexus. They feature the deployment of nation-state, shared nationhood and bounded
At the subnational level, administration and governance is guided by the constitution which defines the roles and duties of the executive (Richards, D. and Smith, M. 2002, 97). However it should be understood that the nation-state is not independent as it is prone to influence from globalization. Cultural values as well as political views held are likely to be influenced by interaction with other societies on the global platform. The composition and properties of nation-states is influenced by external growth, similarity and separation whereby one is likely to find that structure of governments within nation-states appears similar to other nation-states. It means that the organization of the political entities tend to be derived from another nation-state.
According to the supporters, culture is tightly connected with the active participation of an individual as a citizen in a society while providing an insight of self-assessment and identification (can also be attributed to constructivism) for the individual and the societal groups. The thirds outlook on cultural diplomacy is the ideological one. Proponents of the ideological approach have a notion of supremacy of the already functioning state machine for which the culture should “serve” without infringing on the status-quo of the state apparatus. To sum up, it is evident of what these different perceptions have in common – the effort of the states to attain more power and implement their foreign policies by utilizing culture as an efficient tool together with non-governmental organizations or the voluntary participation of its citizens that would increase the cooperation with other countries without the need to resort to
This development may be the result of internal structural issues or the result of resentment by an existing group or groups towards other communities, especially foreign powers that are or are deemed to be controlling them. Nationalism means devotion for the nation. It is a sentiment that binds the people together. National symbols and flags, national anthems, national languages, national myths and other symbols of national identity are highly important in
3. Hegemony and World Order: Neo-Gramscianism Approach to IR Social forces, state and IR: transcending existing theories One of the theoretical ambitions of Cox is to explore the different configuration of state and society complexes and their implication for IR study. In this theoretical process, he especially emphasized social dimension of the state, which are most clearly seen in Gramscian concepts of hegemony, historical bloc, and civil society. On the one hand, beware of underrating state power; on the other hand, he gave additional attention to social forces and process to see how they relate to the development of states and world order. The Gramscian approach to IR thus provides a way to conceptualize world order free of the constraints
Socioeconomic problems with no prospects of solution are more important. (more important than what?) In most ethnic conflicts, long-lasting and frustrating social and economic discriminations are involved, and it these penetrates to the political cultural levels. It can be claimed that cultural causes have led to these discriminations, but that would be an “egg and chicken” argument of what preceded to what. Huntington’s analysis of fault line conflicts at the micro level assumes as predetermined cultural approach that oversimplifies reality.
The concepts in ethnic such as ethnicity, ethnocentrism and discrimination can detrimental to the integration of patriotism toward Malaysia. The stages of ethnic relation in Malaysia has transformed from segregation to amalgamation. At the beginning stage, the relationship among race or ethnic during the “Colonial”time has the effect of separation especially in education system,career and communication. Then in a process where each noticed their own value of their own social norms to upkeep their strong belief of their own cultural and living. This stage of the process known as accommodation.