Secessionist groups arise from a particular minority group (e.g. ethnic groups, religious groups) in the society. These groups desire to establish a territory wherein they can enforce their own interests and values. However, secessionist groups pose serious centrifugal problems to states
Ahmer (2014) in his article The myth of Pakistani nationalism states that nationalism can play positive as well as the negative role like it can unite or divide a country. When Pakistan appeared on the world map as an autonomous and sovereign state, it was regarded as a distinctive country for the reason that it has diverse cultural, religious and geological distinctiveness. But, Pakistan turned out to be the first post-colonial state to have fragmented on the source of ethnic nationalism. As Muslims comprise an irresistible majority of the population of Pakistan, consequently, Islam cannot be in jeopardy or is in menace, whereas, Pakistan 's endurance is at risk because of massive internal and external fear. As a result, what is necessary in order to save Pakistan from more insecurity and decomposition of its sovereignty is the endorsement and encouragement of Pakistani nationalism by having focal point on three chief things.
Accordingly, the onset of Boko Haram violence is to be blamed onto either the central government or the police as they have failed to exert enough control over their territory. Violence is thus the result of the emasculation of the state . The solution, then, is to bring order back by reinforcing local police control and containing the spread of violence. This was the most popular discourse within Nigeria in 2013 when Goodluck Jonathan launched ‘Operation Zaman Lafiyaas’ (later turned into ‘Operation Lafiya Dole’) against Boko Haram as it provided a justification to police violence and unauthorised killings in the North-East . Although it will be discussed in more length in Chapter Five, one of the many issues with this narrative is that it takes individual agency away from the police forces by depicting them as rule-driven, as the guardians of order always acting on behalf of the central
Factors such as failure of production, drought, and the failure of governments to serve the society they are meant to serve based on their contract and instead neglect particular ethnic group politically and economically as well as encroachment and the resultant competition over resources by neighboring ethnic groups may cause varying degree of conflicts. In addition to resources or power conflict between two or more ethnic groups’ ethno political disputes can also take place to protect their culture, group status, and identity against one another which are mostly non-negotiable at ethnic level (Pearson, 2001). It is in cognizant of the effect of ethicizing conflicts that Messay argues “ethnicity is a strong social force that must be properly considered and managed in order to obliterate its destructive roles in politics” (Messay 2001: 283). According to Balcha (2008), ethnic plurality would lead to conflict multiplication if it is not carefully approached and properly treated and its adverse effect will worse when the elites play a key role in the creation of ethnic ideology as a means to their political
These people have to continue their lives elsewhere as mandatory or optional from where their ancestors were born. They encounter with a range of serious problems in the new place. One of them is that clashing with new place, people and culture. Also, this clash is the source of the problem of the sense of belonging. Therefore, while assimilation is imposed on the immigrants, some negative results that are created by assimilation should not be ignored.
Finally, political and economic stress joined with propagation of radical nationalistic ideals ensured the failure of negotiation between any party and the development of a distinct and unprecedented violent war (in an artificial state). As observed, Tito had a considerable influence on the narrative of Yugoslavia and, in many ways, defied the impossible by keeping such a distinct group of people intact and bound together. However, he also played a role in its dissolution, as he unintentionally catalyzes the (perhaps inevitable) spread of nationalism in the country. Thereby, he must be deemed as the predominant force for any major event during this
The fundamental arbiters of change from the Old World to the New World were: Capitalism, Colonialism, Modernity and Nationalism. Hind Swaraj is a staunch critique of all these four concepts. In this text, he not only completely does away with modern civilization, but also critiques the individuality in civil society. He believed that India was being ground down, not by the British heel but under that of modern civilization; the end result of these means was that the people were turning away from God. I would like to draw attention to how the Gandhian theory of life
The book is basically a study to determine the reasons why the political system of Pakistan-repeatedly regarded as a failed state-has not functioned properly. The lack of political consensus in the country and the hindrances-social and geopolitical- faced by successive governments form the main subject matter of the book. The book ends with a detailed discussion on the factors shaping the political development of
So the diverse fiber of Pakistani society is based on different language groups. The five indigenous language groups were Punjabi, Balochi, Sindhi, Pukhtoon and Bengali. While on the other hand Urdu is our national language and English is a language of power and also the official language. Pakistan faced many serious problems due to language differences. So, since the creation of country, language is the base of many political issues.
Political instability has become a serious problem especially for the developing and underdeveloped countries. Political instability is a major problem in Pakistan. Every politician tries to gain more power and in this game of power, the whole nation has to deal with the consequences. Politicians had their personal interests in gaining the power. Even Quaid-e-Azam did a mistake at the time of formation of Pakistan by appointing some civil servants without any merit.