The Land act of 1913 was a catalyst to black resistance and the formation of the African National Congress Youth League in 1940.this made way for more radical and active forms of protests. After the war in 1902 it was clear the Union of South Africa was dominantly white control over black South Africans. Two congress parties were then formed in 1906 consisting of black workers who were counter acting the British racial laws. These Congresses were known as the Native Congress and the Transvaal Native Congress. Soon after their letters and complaints to the British government were ignored, they decided to take a more radical stand.
From the understanding of the empowerment theory, one can see its positive relevance to South Africa’s decolonization and Africanization process. This can be so in that, a critical analysis on pre 1994 South Africa shows that the Republic was under white colonial rule of the National Party which sort to increase patterns of colonial discrimination of the Black South Africans through the devolution of political structures and the promotion of a putative independence in the African reserves Laura (2012). Race also played a pivotal role during this colonial period. The White rule was characterized by installation of oppression, denial of opportunities and poverty on the black majority based on belief in biological racial difference and hierarchy. This exemplifies the notion of oppression, discrimination and powerlessness suffered by the marginalized individuals and groups in some societies as argued by the empowerment theory.
Booth Jr. In the book Booth begins by stating how contrary to Islam and the tribal religions being viewed as traditional to Africa, Christianity is considered as a religion that was imported from Europe to Africa. Christianity initially did not have a strong influence to the South of the Sahara until the beginning of the protestant missionary era. Later on in the centuries to come there were chaplains who had ministered to Africans, but they were later on forbidden when it became apparent that the conversion of Africans hindered the slave trade. Once the British realized the detrimental effects of the slave trade a ubiquitous effort began on the behalf Africa.
The political identities play a significant role in the understanding of Williams, Dubois, and Nkrumah’s Pan-Africanism and how it has shaped their lives. Henry Sylvester Williams was born in Trinidad in 1869 where he eventually moved to London to organize the formation of the Pan-African Association. This resulted in the first Pan-African conference in 1900, the beginnings of the modern Pan-African movement. Several historians claim Henry Sylvester Williams originally conceived the term “Pan-African”. His abolitionist notions made him desire the removal of all forms of British colonialism from Africa and the West Indies, thus shaping Williams’ political identity.
After he left prison, he led the ANC into negotiations with the minority government for an end to apartheid and created a multiracial government, later being elected South Africa 's first black president ("Nelson Mandela"). Nelson Mandela changed the world through creating the transition between apartheid to democracy in South Africa by spreading the message of racial equality through the actions of social justice. This is seen today through Mandela bringing peace to the racially divided country of South Africa and bringing in the world 's most progressive constitution for political reformation. Nelson Mandela threw out apartheid from the government and created an interracial democracy in South Africa during a time where the country was racially divided and darker skinned people were treated as slaves. Mandela sought to change this and lead peaceful protests to show the government there was a problem.
In what ways is contemporary American Society still dealing with the same problems? W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963) was very progressive for his time. He thought that being both black and American made for a unique identity. He began to push for the federal government to outlaw lynching, he also supported labor laws, women’s right to vote, and interracial marriage.
Some independent churches were highly nationalistic, like that established by John Chilembwe, who led an armed nationalist uprising in Nyasaland (Malawi) in 1917. Others developed as a response of those Africans aspiring to be priests or pastors to the discrimination practiced against them by white missionaries’ (ibid). In most cases, as mentioned above, the separate African independent churches were against segregation and racism found in the white churches. Africans were denied priesthood and even sitting arrangement was segregative. Also, African cultures and civilizations were ignored by the white churches.
It started when Britain ended slavery, and the birth to abolitionists. The idea was that black people were less superior to white people however by ending slavery it was believed that black people will rise and prosper, though they weren’t at the same level and class of white people, not yet. The next idea was imperialism, where Britain. Europe, America, and many other empires believed in expanding their empire no matter what the cost. That essentially was due to social Darwinism where they believed they had the right to rule over those people of lesser purpose than them.
The BCM revived resistance in South Africa and focused on freeing the mind, promoting self-reliance and aiming to build the confidence of the oppressed. INVESTIGATION The BCM focused on the decolonisation of the mind which Biko referred to as an inwards looking process whereas the ANC mainly focused on external decolonisation .Biko said “What we want is not black visibility but real black participation”. (1. Biko and Stubbs, 1979) The country had been left in a hopeless situation and it was the work of Steve Biko along with members of the BCM that revived the resistance in the country and restored black confidence. The first step that the BCM had taken was to reject the term “non-white”.
He got really upset when he realized that Africans were treated like slaves and they were suffering by the British people who had occupied Africa since 1652. That is when his fight for freedom and inequality started (Nelson Mandela Foundation). Nelson Mandela become the first black president in South Africa, which was not his biggest achievement, but stopping inequality between white people and black people was. During his presidency he managed to create democratic country and social harmony. Nelson Mandela became the symbol of the freedom fighter all around the world.