Ideology works largely by creating forms of "common sense," of the taken-for-granted in everyday life. ” ideologies are systems of belief that exist within all cultures, images” (Sturken & Cartwright 2001:21). In order to explore the meaning of images, one would have to acknowledge that they are produced within dynamics of social power and ideology. Aesthetic is an ideological necessity because it shows how people can be brought together and uses ‘individual experiences’ to produce a sense of community, which then embodies ideology (Cavallaro 2001:77).Images are elements used in advertising and consumer culture. They makes us conform to the standards and ideologies that are reinforced in society.
First, social structure is how a community is organized into divisions, families, tribes; therefore, an individual identity is influenced by the groups to which they belong. Secondly, culture can influence a person identity since they are accepted code of behavior and ways of doing things in society. Thirdly, changes in the social and cultural settings can instill identity in a person since they are not static (Michener, Delamater, & Myers, 2004). The following are strategies of self-verification: constructing self-verifying structures, systematic communication of self-views, clinging to self-views, and interpretations of information for self-view (Michener, Delamater, & Myers, 2004). These four strategies can be applied to find out people with positive and negative views, and that can help to understand self-esteem.
Culture, as defined by Donald Klopf, is “that part of the environment made by humans.” (1991). Furthermore, Culture involves beliefs, attitudes, values, and traditions that are shared by a group of people. In other words, culture is that distinct system of living created uniquely through coexistence; respected and obeyed by citizen in uplifting a common value. Interestingly, cultures defers in application; so what is accepted in one culture maybe a taboo in another depending on the mind-set or orientation of the inhabitant of that society. However, it is apparent that Cultures reflects inequality, diversity, and the divergent range of values, symbols, and meanings across communities.
The Cambridge Dictionary considers Culture as "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time". According to this, it can be said that culture is responsible for guiding society, under certain parameters, rules and customs that must be respected and shared among individuals in the same society; thus, there is no culture without being in a society; in the same way, there is no society without individuals interacting with each other. The coexistence in society has long been affected by two disintegrating elements called Prejudice and Racism, both with a high cultural content that have gradually deteriorated the development of the modern society. Prejudice has become one of the most common evils within modern society; people often have attitudes and beliefs, usually negative that tend to hurt others. It is
Introduction Every individual is a part of a particular society and society is composed of different races, religions, social and ethnic groups. To be a part of society socialization is important because, socialization is the process by which an individual acquire knowledge, language, social skills and values to be conventional to the norms and roles required for integration into a society. Within the process of socialization the symbolic construction of the vast array of social and ethnic group’s experiences, the embodiment, and the chronicle of a group’s history is termed as culture. Culture refers to the languages, beliefs, values, norms, customs, knowledge and skills that people learnt, and that make up the way of life of any society. Culture is passed on from one generation to the next through the process of socialization.
In other words, the meaning of the symbols is developed through human interaction and communication. As a result of this, human interaction is a vital part of society and reality. For instance, by communicating and using language these symbols and their meanings go through an interpretive process in which reality is constructed. Symbolic interaction also states that individuals develop self-concepts through the interaction with others. Self-concepts are an individual 's perception of their own actions, potential, and distinctive characteristics.
1. Cultural Value Cultural is attitude or the way of life of a community. According to Yvette (2009:78), people are cultural being, culture is belong to their identity, the way they act and interact in the world. Yvette states (2009:122) that cultural values are the values that pervade a culture and inform what is good and bad, positive and negative and so on. It means cultural values are a set of values that accepted and believed by society.
Social norms constitute a very significant part of regulation and functioning of community. They create certain patterns and set of rules for human behavior. They are conditioned by the complexity of social interactions. Social norms are a product of the culture. They dictate an individual and social behavior.
Through language people demonstrate and form their identities . Discourse is a significant element that shows and construct the characteristics of the sociocultural context and its analysis may show how language is used within a particular group , organization , culture or society ( Van Dijk 1997). Moreover , discourse has its vital role since it becomes a medium which is used to convey ideologies in a persuasive manner ( Van Dijk, 1997).The ideology refer to the person and how he is a part in a group . What does he do and why , what distinguishes the member and what is his social position . These concepts serve as markers of the communal interests and the individual practices , as well as the knowledge shared by the community ( Van Dijk ,1997 ) .
Nemade pointed out that sometimes being native means “being attached to a particular place” (Pranjapae 236). Our societies have become native in order to protect their languages, cultural affiliation, and ethnic identity from the imported values. Nemade define nativism: Nativism evokes a whole constellation of feeling, perception, thought, enlightenment, and memory which has grown due to one’s attachment to a specific geographical area.... It prefers to look back into the past to looking ahead into the future. Nativism is a response of the people to the past and also to the future.