(1998). The Role of Interlanguage in Foreign Language Teaching. Iral, 36(1), 1-10. The study done by Nickel discusses the nature of interlanguage and the effects this phenomenon has on second language learning and teaching. This article mainly focuses on the language transfer and fossilization, while also discussing the way in which error analysis and error correction can be improved through understanding of the concept of interlanguage.
A very similar finding was shared by Zhang (2010) stating that cooperative language learning provides students with the necessary academic and social skills. Participation is enhanced by cooperative learning techniques (Drakeford, 2012). However, the teaching process in CL showed there were several shortcomings and difficulties, such as the dependence of lower achievers on higher achievers (Abdulahi, Hashim, & Kawo, 2017), the unified course schedule, and the difficulties of designing meaningful activities, managing noisy and chaotic classroom, grouping the students, facing attendance rate or distracted students and evaluating a vast of students’ test grades (Wang,
Drawing on how conventions and prospects regarding what establishes the right way to talk (or even write) might influence the educational experiences of children from conventionally marginalized groups across a range of educational contexts in US society, this work primarily reformed how many research experts viewed the role of language in education, discourse in learning, and culture in communication. For the meantime, Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson (1974) were inspecting the organization of turn-taking in conversation, while Sinclair and Coultard (1975) were examining how teachers and students interacted with a focus on the very common initiation-response-evaluation (IRE) sequence present in most classroom
Our textbook further explains that as the instructional (teacher) one can facilitate learning in many ways, if utilizing the “Right set of instructional stimuli”(pg. 40). This same perspective applies to the cognitivist learning theory where instructional design based on prediction that, “If a certain stimulus resulted in a particular response or outcome, it would do so again and again” (Harasim, 2017, p. 54). Another similarity between both learning theories, still relating to the instructional design is the taxonomies of learning. Two different authors constructed the taxonomies of learning for each learning theory: Benjamin Bloom (behaviorist learning theory) and Robert M. Gagne’ (cognitivist learning theory).
One way to improve is by having the learner experience the real word world problem. This is learning by experience. Experiential learning is a well-known model in education. Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (Kolb, 1984) defines experiential learning as "the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge results from the combination of grasping and transforming experience."
Stuthers, Perry and Menec (2000) claimed that coping strategies influence students’ course grades. One of its structure, the problem-focused, targets on the causes of stress in practical ways that intend to remove or reduce the causes of stressors. Additionally, Doron et al. (2011) found an association between mastery goals and problem-focused coping. This finding is supported by a study conducted by Elliot, McGregor and Gable (1999) that showed the linkage between mastery approach goals and positive processes in the academic setting.