Natural Disaster Management

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Introduction
World has history of Natural Disaster, and its affect almost every part of the world from southern to northern country, According to a World Bank report Titled “Natural hazards, unnatural disasters,” floods and storms are the most widespread at the same time droughts are mainly and frequently happen in Africa. In those areas where the region suffer from frequent drought and floods, those region are also home to most of the hungry in the world and climate change expected to increase this situation so therefore, a need to recognize hazards and vulnerability in a comprehensive manner and take effective steps for prevention, mitigation and management.
In the case of India Natural Disaster are increasing, In 2013-14 alone India witnessed
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Ministry of Home Affairs, 2011 Define Disaster as “Catastrophic situation in which the normal pattern of life or ecosystem has been disrupted and extra-ordinary emergency interventions are required to save and preserve lives and or the environment”
The Disaster Management Act 2005, Defines disaster as “a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any area, arising from natural or man-made causes or by accident or negligence which result in substantial loss of life or human sufferings or damage to, and destruction of, property or damage to, or degradation of environment and is of such a nature or magnitude as to be beyond the coping capacity of the community of an affected area”
It also Define the “Disaster Management” means a continuous and integrated process of planning, organisation, coordinating, and implementing measures which are necessary for –
a. Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster
b. Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster
c. Capacity
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Therefore it is one of the single largest concerns for most of the developing nations.
Policy and laws
India has federal system of governance where has specific roles for the central and state government. However since independence the subject of disaster management nowhere mention in the constitution of India. It did not mention is regarding who would responsible for the mitigation of the plan of the disaster. From earlier there was no policy or law to deal with management of disaster of various types in a comprehensive manner (NDMD, 2002a).
India did not address the mitigation of plan of disaster in five year plan also after independence but government of India had a long history of using fund from the plan for mitigation natural disaster. Some important scheme in india that helped in reducing disaster vulnerability, these are integrated wasteland development programme (IWDP), drought prone areas programme (DPAP), Desert Development programme (DDP), flood control programme, national afforestation & eco-development programme (NA&ED). These are the plan scheme dealt with the prevention and mitigation of the impact of Natural

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