However, Popper did not formally acknowledge his involvement with Pragmatism although a high affinity to that philosophical concept can be noticed in his work. Popper’s knowledge of natural science with his views on social science are limited to economics. Popper’s main aim was to provide guidelines to scientists on the progression and development of normative philosophy of science. Popper agreed with Rudolph Carnap, one of the members of the Vienna Circle that philosophy would earn from how natural science work. He also agreed with the two characteristics of Vienna Circle; first, the empiricist and positivist, where knowledge can only be obtained from experience and secondly that scientific conception can be obtained by logical analysis.
Therefore, it could be said that human life and society cannot come under preview of scientific investigation. However, Weber maintained a different view that researches in social sciences can also based upon generalizations like of natural science. He saw sociology as a science that employs both interpretative understanding and casual explanation of social actions and interaction. As claimed, his theory being subjective motivational and historical and dualism rather than naturalistic, empirical. For him, these social action are classified as – means end rational action, value rational action and effectual or tradition actions, these are also the “ideal types”.
The positivist believe that science is only basis for real knowledge. Reason for conducting a positivism is determine laws which can be normalized in explaining the human behavior in the world. Positivist make use of observation and experiment in the study. • ONTOLOGY The Positivism research tradition adherent a realist ontology. Positivist argue human beings to discover the world which is made of quantifiable, perceptible and detectable by giving it sense and description.
Objectivist theories are unbiased and modelled on natural science using quantitative methods, stats etc. It is a direct observation, the way we create knowledge about the world is how we observe the world around us. Interpretive theories, they are research tools themselves, they can be biased. They use qualitative methods, creating hypothesis not rules. They are based on observation and interpretation.
WHAT IS IT ABOUT THEORIES IN THE HUMAN AND THE NATURAL SCIENCES THAT MAKES THEM CONVINCING? Theory is a conception based in recognition and understanding of significant factors, which shapes reality, but what does it mean? It is stated that theories are connected with our environment and surrounding and with diverse factors which creates them. Theories are concerned about understanding of the world by the people and identification of it. Theories is natural sciences deal with the unknown in the area of nature, physical world and on the other hand human sciences are connected with question of human nature and acts.
Is Sociology a science? Just like the question on whether we shaped society or society shaped us, it is controversial on whether sociology is a science or not. From my perspective, I do agree that sociology is a science and in this essay, I will first talk about what is sociology and science, why is sociology considered science by sociologist. The definition of science is that it “bases knowledge on empirical evidence gained through direct, systematic observation” (Thompson & Hickey, 2011, p.30). The key idea to science is observation where it encompass tangible evidence and empirical proof.
Natural law maintains that law should be based on morality and ethics. Natural law is based on what’s “correct” and is “discovered” by humans through the use of reason and choosing between good and evil. Where man exercises his reason correctly he will understand what will result in better ends. In fact, the interpretation of natural law varies from one theorist to another. According to Kelsen (1881-1973), laws and systems of government supposedly all derived from natural law vary from place to place and age to age, there being no unanimity between philosophers as to the conclusions to be deducted from natural law.
In Did Habermas Cede Nature to the Positivists?, Gordon Mitchell creates a philosophical discussion concerning the validity of Jürgen Habermas’s “colonization of the lifeworld” thesis. Habermas’s thesis sought to elucidate the implications of society’s propensity for “converting social issues into technical problems” that require resolutions based off a “scientific mode of decision-making” (Mitchell, 1). This mechanical mode of thinking stems from the idea that science is objective in nature, in which there is always a right way and a wrong way. However, Habermas argues that “joint communicative action by deliberating citizens would yield more appropriate and legitimate judgments” in the field of social sciences (Mitchell, 1). Although many scholars agree with Habermas’s ideology, for the most part, they critique his argument for the implication that the natural sciences (physics, chemistry, geology) can only be known through experience and traditional scientific methods, rather than metaphysical.
Reason plays a very vital and important role in the area of natural sciences. Knowledge claims made in natural sciences compared to other areas since they have solid evidence to back the knowledge claims made. The sciences use both deductive and inductive reasoning though they use more of inductive reasoning, where knowledge claims made are based on repetitive past observations. The scientific method requires one to have a set of observations, using inductive reasoning to
[ Ibid. ] Natural law can exist without the governance of a superior being through the usage of positive law. Positive law is needed because of the insufficiency of the natural law to direct man in the practical affairs of his life. A state has the power to make laws then oblige the subjects in conscience to obey in order to provide the benefits of a well-ordered life. With or without a superior being, there will still be an authority that is capable of making laws to ensure the common good based on natural law along with positive