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The emphasis of this method of job analysis is on the attributes, abilities and knowledge and individuals’ characteristics that are required by the employee to perform the desired duties. According to McCormick et al. (1967) the worker oriented method is more comprehensive of work-related areas as compared to the work oriented methodologies. The worker-oriented approaches are frequently involved in selection purposes, in finding out explicit KSA’s required for the task (Brannick et al., 2007). The requirements of an individual to comprehend the responsibilities and duties of the job are defined by the Worker-oriented analyses describe (Dierdorff and Wilson,
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Impact: The degree in which an individual can influence strategic, administrative or operating outcomes at work (Ashforth, 1989). Empowerment forms according to Lashley (2001) include; i. Empowerment through participation; this means the delegation of decision-making from management arena, for example, the use of autonomous working groups. ii. Empowerment through involvement, in this case management gain through reflecting on employees’ experiences, ideas, and suggestions, for example team briefings. iii.
Employee influenced including “delegated levels of authority, responsibility, power etc”. Work system including “designing of the work and the aliment of people in the work”. A new theory established by an American psychologist Abraham Maslow in 1943 to support the human resource management policies and choices component of the Harvard Model. This theory called as “Maslow Hierarchy of Needs”. The purpose of this theory is to concentrate on the motivation of the people using set of factors with different level.
So what exactly is performance management? Williams (2007) describes performance management as something ‘that integrates appraisal of employees’ performance with two-way feedback, development and goal setting’. Cardy (2004) defines it as a critical feature of organisational effectiveness and Pratt (1988) states that ‘performance management is designed to make
It has been conceptualized as a general attitude toward the job. 7.2.1. Dimensions of Quality of Work Life: (Lawler’s, 1982; Rethinam, et al., 2008; Gibson, Switch, Daneli and Paskeh, 2000; Cunningham, and Eberle, 1990) have presented concepts and definitions in light of the various approaches to quality of work life that can be categorized into 3 areas: dimensions of structural, dimensions managerial and social dimensions of quality of work life • Structural dimensions: Salary, Wages, Benefits and Reward; Safety in working environment; Job Security; Attracting and retaining programs in organization. • Managerial dimensions: Quality of Management and Supervision; Opportunity for Training Talents; Skills and occupational improvement; Feedback about the function; Participation in decision-making. • Social dimensions: Social consolidation in Work environment; Social interaction.