The rate of urban growth in Africa is very alarming and the continent is said to have the highest rate of urbanization globally, at 4.4% per year (Gwebu, 2004)[ ]. In the year 2000, owning to the combined effects of rural-urban migration and rapid rates of natural increase, 38% of the continent’s population lived in urban areas and the proportion was expected to increase to 47% by 2015 (Thuo, 2010). Urbanization in Ghana is not different from other African countries. In 2000, 43.8% of the population constituted urban dwellers with a growth rate of 2.6% per annum as against 23.1% in 1960 (GSS, 2000)[ ]. Though the rate of urbanization in Africa is projected to rise to over 50% by the year 2030, Ghana has already achieved this with 51.5% of its population already living in urban areas (United Nations, 2008)[ ].
In terms of economic strength, South Africa is by far the dominant power of the region. South Africa's GDP alone is many times greater than the GDPs of all other countries in the region. However, this economic growth in South Africa lead to urbanization. In Johannesburg, people migrated to the city in large numbers leading to over-population, in search of employment and socio-economic services. Thus, urban planning efforts in Johannesburg face key challenges in common with other sub-region cities: urban downfall; substantial housing buildups; poverty and inequality; segregation; slum and informal settlement propagation within the city centre and on the urban peripheries; as well as inadequate infrastructure and service
For the enhancement of public participations and insuring efficient and effective provision of services by giving discretional power to regional state to decide on the organizational structure of their local governments. Accordingly, there are different organizational structures of local government in regional states. Some regional states have zones, Wereda and Kebele and some others have only Wereda and Kebele level of local
Thus, in the mid-90s developed countries were responsible for nearly 82% of the total value of cross-border trade in the whole world in addition to over 80% of the world’s total value of foreign direct investment (FDI) (Shangquan 2000). Consequently, developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan and the United States are marked as the largest winners of economic globalization. The process of economic globalization, in its turn, has resulted in an expansion of the gap between the prosperous North and the destitute South. The “great divergence” which splits the world into the rich and poor countries since the nineteenth century was defined as a “dominant feature of the modern economic history” (Rodik, 2003). However, during the last two decades the developing countries seem to have significantly revised settled state of economic affairs.
The local government is regarded as the municipalities of communities and are found everywhere in societies. These municipalities are backed by legislature and executive powers with the authority over their specified region of control. Their role is to pass municipal budgets, make decisions concerning the growth and development, and to ensure service delivery to their controlling area/s. We find three different forms of municipalities in South Africa; Metro-politician municipalities (local services), Local municipalities (development and service delivery), and District municipalities (development and service delivery in rural/undeveloped areas). Another aspect within the spheres of government is the Judiciary.
Tourism has become one of the world’s largest industries, with an estimated US$ 3 trillion in annual revenues and expanding at an average rate of 4-5 percent annually. According to the World Bank, Tourism is the fastest and biggest growing industry in the world. The tourism industry has been an important part of the economy of Hong Kong since it shifted to a service sector model in the late 1980s and early 90s. Tourism is one of the four pillar industries in Hong Kong, along with financial services, trading and logistics, as well as professional and producer services. Tourism industry has contributed immensely to economic growth in Hong Kong; in 2010, value added of HK$74.6 billion (US$9.6 billion) was generated by tourism sector which represents
Introduction South Africa has made huge improvements over two decades to rise from a poorly unnoticeable destination with only 6.7 million visitors in 1990 to one of the fastest growing attraction, wooing 33.8 million tourists, in 2012 (World Bank, 2013). This strong burst of attractive ability is thank to a clear vision, focused approach and applicable guidelines. The White paper for development and The White paper on Development and Promotion of Tourism is a notable document acting as directory and strategic guidance for the conducting of “responsible” tourism activities. About White paper on Development and Promotion of Tourism is officially published in 1996 by South African government. It contains explanation of weaknesses faced by both
Among all these urban areas Megacity Dhaka itself contributing to accommodate 39% (Islam, 2013) of total urban population; three metropolitan cities are accommodating 21% of urban population and rest is in municipalities and other urban areas (WB, 2011). Dhaka works as migration magnet for numerous reasons. As a capital city of Bangladesh it is the focus of most of the political, administrative and economic functions. Several studies have identified some major reasons for high urban concentration at the megacities, for developing countries some common reasons are population migration, economic investment concentration, industrial foci, political and administrative headquarters deliberation and lucrative urban amenities and so on. For Dhaka all these reasons are valid (Zaman,
CHAPTER ONE – BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 1.1 Introduction with Evidence of Literature Search It is incontrovertible that we are rapidly in the urbanizing world. Although Africa remains the least urbanized continent, it has currently demonstrate to be the fastest rate of urbanization in the world. The urbanization process in most part of the world in both developed and developing countries has led to increase in spatial and population size of town and cities. Urbanization is an important social and economic phenomenon that is taking place rapidly all around the world (Deng, Wang et al. 2009).
During the last decade, motor vehicle ownership in several metropolitan cities (those with over one million population) has been growing at nearly 10% per annum (World Bank, 2002). In many cases, demand has outstripped road capacity. The rapid expansion and strengthening of the road network, therefore, is imperative, to provide for both present and future traffic and for improved accessibility to the hinterland. The fast growth of large cities primarily due to the growth in the population coupled with increase in urbanisation has posed serious challenges to the development of adequate infrastructure facilities. Travel demand has risen sharply, exceeding the available supply in transportation infrastructure and facilities.