Ch. 2 DBQ: Nature vs. Nurture The long-running Nature versus nurture debate is whether human behavior is determined by the environment, either prenatal or during a person 's life, or by a person 's genes. Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external factors on conception e.g. the product of exposure, experience and learning on an individual.
However, such behaviour becomes part of an individual’s behavioural repertoire through direct reinforcement – when a behaviour is imitated, it receives direct reinforcement (or not). In contrast, the psychodynamic approach requires a combination of both the nature and nurture. According to Freud, both childhood experiences as well as innate drives constitute the personality of an adult. The basis of this is dependent on developmental stages which a
Internal causes are determined by internal desire while external causes are actions that are forced by something external. When a soft determinist says that someone has freewill, they mean that someone’s actions are a result of their internal causes. Hard determinists argue with this statement by claiming that internal causes are caused by external causes. Although that is true and soft determinists would agree with that and with psychological determinism, however all internal causes are shaped by nature, environment, upbringing and society, ultimately we make the choices that follow our personal desires. David Hume explained it as “power of acting according to the determinations of the will: that is, if we choose to remain at rest we may; if we choose to move we also may.” This leads to the philosophical definition of freewill.
Critical Analysis Saul McLeod discusses nature versus nurture in his article “Nature Versus Nurture in Psychology.” McLeod describes the theory of nature versus nurture and important psychologists, states the history behind the theories, and mentions recent ideas and theories pertaining to nature versus nurture. With McLeod’s wide coverage and depth, he displays a good range in knowledge of the topic and produces an informative article. McLeod first states that the debate of nature versus nurture focuses on environment and genes and then describes each: “Nature is what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and other biological factors. Nurture is generally taken as the influence of external
Eylul Icgoren 21601232 005 Essay no 2 29.11.16 Morality is to understand whether a behavior or an event is good or evil. Morals prevent chaos in societies and make them survive. Bloom, Shermer and Prinze analyze how morals shape and what are they based on. They tell that it is possible in two ways, which are emotions and reasoning. Shermer and Prinze consider the role of emotions as base of morals, however Bloom considers that morals are based on reasoning.
The notion of the nature nurture debate is an ongoing argument that deliberates the views of development and their influences. This debate questions whether genetics or the environment surrounding a child has greater influence on development. It is necessary to highlight a variety of current and popular opinions in regard to the debate to determine differences in perception and research and the greater influence in development. This essay will discuss the concept of nature and nurture, then the perceptions linked to both notions and finally highlight the differences between popular arguments and research to come to a conclusion on whether nature or nurture has a greater influence. The reasoning for individual's unique characteristics is derived
In the article, “Nature vs. Nurture”, by Saul McLeod, it states, “When an infant forms an attachment it is responding to the love and attention it has received, language comes from imitating the speech of others and cognitive development depends on the degree of stimulation in the environment and, more broadly, on the civilization within which the child is reared.” For example, a toddler can be teach to not have any social interactions with other people than his or her family. As the child begins to mature, the child has a high probability to isolate his or herself from other people. This firm concept is known as nurture. Nurture is the factors of the environment that contributes and impacts the behavior of a specific person. In the article, “Nature vs. Nurture”, by Saul McLeod, it quotes, “It is how you are brought up (nurture) that governs the psychologically
III - In Emily Greenfield’s, description of Ford and Lerner’s 1992 Developmental Systems Theory, she writes “While DST notes that social environments can fundamentally influence individuals’ behavior, at the same time, individuals-within existing environmental constraints and opportunities-can select and shape these very environments. In this way, DST conceptualizes individuals as both products and producers of their own development. (E. Greenfield p. 532) The person-environment relationship is symbiotic, they affect one another and cannot be viewed independent of each other. Using Levine’s Basic Problem Solving Process, if we define assessment, as leading “...to a definition of the problem, and it beginning to indicate resources for dealing
Do you ever wonder how you act the way you do? Nature vs. nurture is a discussion about whether genetics or parenting have a bigger impact on your personality. Both nature and nurture are important in how you act. Identical twins have many differences. There are many ways nurture can affect a kid 's personality.
He created set of stages to indicate an individual’s ability to think. Piaget saw development as adaptation to the environment one lives in. This engagement and interaction leads to new perceptions of the world and new organizations of knowledge and thought. Then we have Erik Erikson (1902-1994), he proposed the psychosexual theory. This states that the driving force behind development is the need to become integrated into the social and cultural environment.
Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another (Ainsworth, 1973 Farrington-Flint 2014 p and Bowlby 1969. Farrington-Flint 2014 p Attachment behaviour in parents towards their child includes responding sensitively and appropriately to the child’s requirement, such behaviour appears universal across cultures. Attachment theory provides an explanation of how the parent/child relationship materializes and influences development, this is supported by Psychologist Bowlby, Harlow, Lorenz theories of attachments. Farrington-Flint 2014 p They suggested that infants come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others. The element of attachment is not food, but care and responsiveness.
Nagel contributes to the mind-body dualism by posing challenges to faulty reductive theories by discussing the importance of the consideration of subjectivity. He is entitled to the assumptions he makes because reductionism overlooks the gap between the subjective and the objective. Further exploring such gap can signify the creation of new methods that invoke the objective as well as the subjective. As of now the call for innovative approaches to understand the consciousness are essential to better understand our species and others
The study of attitudes has helped us to further our insight into understanding human behaviour. Models such as the Tripartite model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour provide a structure to how our attitudes influence our behaviour. Attitude is defined as a general feeling of evaluation towards an object/person, positive or negative (Hogg, 2013). The Tripartite Model of Attitudes proposed by Rosenberg and Hovland provides a structure to how our attitudes towards something affect our behaviour. They believe that our attitudes are broken up into Affective, Behavioural and Cognitions.
Humanistic perspective studies each uniques person and how their thoughts and behaviors are a result of their feelings about themselves. Humanists, such as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers, identify basic human needs that need to be met in order for the person to achieve their own version of success and happiness. The behaviorist perspective studies how the environment affects observable behaviors. Famous behaviorist studies conducted by Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner demonstrated how behavior is conditioned by stimuli in the environment. The cognitive perspective focuses on how humans process information.