In a typical process, appropriate amounts of SO dye and the catalysts were first mixed in a small amount of distilled water. Then, a certain volume of NaBH4 solution was introduced into the above system to form a 3 mL solution. Here, the concentrations of the SO dye, NaBH4 and the catalyst were 2×10-5 mol L-1, 40 mmol L-1 and 200 mg L-1, respectively. Firstly, the catalytic degradation of SO dye in the absence of Bi2S3 NSs by NaBH4 was studied. A small amount of SO dye was degraded.
Conclusion It was clearly observed that the decrease in the concentration of hydrogen peroxide lead to increase in the reaction time and also decrease in the rate of the reaction. Also the decrease on the concentration decreases the rate of the reaction. The two graphs were straight line graphs with positive slopes. So effective collision for a chemical reaction depends directly on the concentration of the reagent, that is, the crowdedness of the reacting molecules which increases reaction time and vice versa. References
Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2. Independent Variable pH 3. Controlled Variables temperature, amount of substrate (sucrose) present, sucrase + sucrose incubation time Effect of Temperature on Enzyme Activity 1. Dependent Variable amount of product (glucose and fructose) produced 2. Independent Variable temperature 3.
Environmental Factors’ Effect on the Speed of Chemical Reactions Hypothesis: pH 8 solution will produce more oxygen during the chemical reaction than pH 3 because pH 8 is more basic and therefore would not denature the enzyme. Background information: The main function of all enzyme proteins is to act as a catalyst, speed up the chemical reaction and provide a place for it. The enzymes interact with specific substrates by combining at the active site of the enzyme. After this occurs the substrate detaches and leaves the active site as products, so the enzyme can become reusable to start the cycle all over again. The products of the chemical reaction are
The effect of pH on the speed of enzyme interaction with substrate chemicals Hypothesis: About pH: If the pH level is less than 5, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will be slower. About temperature: If the temperature stays the same, then the speed of the enzyme reaction will not be completely affected. Background information: The function of enzymes is to speed up the biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, they do this by colliding with the substrate. All enzymes are under the class of protein biomolecule. Amino acids are the basic units that are combined to make up an enzyme.
If only one reactant is increased, then the chemical reaction will only produce a certain amount of products after the limiting reagent is used up, and in this experiment, the most mass the reaction could produce was 0.4 grams. Although we kept adding calcium chloride, not adding sodium hydroxide in the same proportions will not yield more product, which is the main goal in conducting this lab. We should have seen a plateau at 0.4 grams to show that the limiting reagent inhibited further Ca(OH)2 production, but we made several mistakes in our experiment, which made the data unusable to conclude. Once again, the data is polluted, so these number are not accurate, but it is the data our group has to work with. The theoretical yield should have been more than the actual yield, and the percentages should have been less than 100.
PRACTICAL 4 Materials and Methods Measurement of DNA concentration The most common technique to measure DNA concentration is measurement of absorbance. We had used 1:20 dilution of the DNA sample and the reading was expected to be in the range of 0.1-1.5 OD260. 5µl of DNA and 95µl of PBS buffer were mixed together and inserted into a clean cuvette. Then it was put inside the spectrophotometer. The measurement was taken at 230nm, 260nm and 280nm.