Needs analysis is one of the main issues for designing ESP courses, materials, tests or other evaluation tools (Prachanant, 2012). Needs analysis is defined as “the process of identifying and evaluating needs” of the particular group of people, or target population (Titcomb, 2000). Needs analysis also known as needs assessment. McCawley (2009) defined the needs assessment as the systematic study about “knowledge, ability, interest or attitude of a defined audience or group involving a particular subject (P.3). The term “target population” is the same as “learners” called by Hutchinson and Waters (1987).
Needs analysis that emphasizes on the learners' present situation (strength and weaknesses) is called Present Situation Analysis (PSA) and the one that emphasizes on what learners need after taking the ESP course is Target Situation Analysis (TSA) (pp. 8-9). The result of the needs analysis can be the start point for the teacher to design the syllabus and select the teaching materials for an ESP course. The authenticity of the materials and the use of textbooks or tailor-made materials are the issues about the materials selection since ESP relates to the learners’ disciplines or professions. The teaching and learning process, the assessment and the evaluation also have equally important roles as needs analysis and course design.
To achieve the learners’ needs and interests, someone should do the need analysis.Richards and Rodgers (2001) says that need analysis is a procedure which is used to collect the information about the learners’ needs. This procedure, of course, has some steps which must be taken into account while assessing the learners. In addition, Graves (2000) explains much about needs analysis. He says that the process of needs analysis involves a set of decisions, actions, and reflections that are cyclical in nature: 1. Deciding what information to gather and why.
Purpose: Identify the key purpose of conducing the analysis. (Points = 1) a. The main purpose of conducting a needs analysis is to discover, and then analyze the deficits and spaces for improvement in regards to the performance needs of a company/ organization. This analysis provides insight into the specific areas that could potentially be worked on to create more efficient organizations, teams and people. Use: Discuss 2 specific ways the analysis results might be useful to an organization.
Basturkmen (2010) gives a clear definition of needs analysis practice: ESP courses set out to teach the language and communication skills that specific groups of learners need to function effectively in their disciplines of study, professions or workplaces. Because ESP focuses on teaching specific language and communication skills, ESP course design usually includes a stage in which the course developers identify what specific language and skills the group of language learners will need. The identification of language and skills is used in determining and refining the content for the ESP course. This process is termed ‘needs analysis’
Methodology during the planning phase of the project Needs assessment Hawe, P. Degeling, D. and Hall, J. (1990) described the needs assessment as an implementation process to get a comprehensive picture of the health problems in the community and to guide the choices about the types of solutions that might assist in solving the problems experienced by the community. A needs assessment can be described as a systematic approach that progresses through a series of phases. The needs assessment focusses on the outcome. Data is collected for specific purposes, in our case, for research.
Produce a plan for assessing the development needs of staff and carry out a sample assessment for a member of staff. Need Assessment Need assessment is the survey of the needs required. Needs may be required in any manner whether your business or your staff. As your business advances and develops, your workers need to keep pace with new improvements. You have to analyse whether your business needs development or not, it is the first step.
Chapter 3 Situation Assessment 3.1 Introduction Situation assessment is the process of evaluating a situation for its suitability to support decision-making. One theory proposes that experienced decision makers base most of their decisions on situation assessments. The decision-makers mostly use experience for their decisions - that is, they select actions that previously have worked well in similar situations. What they do is to extract the most significant characteristics from the situation. Due to the presence or lack of certain essential characteristics, they relate to similar situations and what actions that have worked well in past cases.
Workforce demand analysis Demands analysis involves assessment of future needs in terms of human resources needed to achieve the programmed policy objectives of the organisation. This analysis should be based on defining strategic goals of the organisation and identifying staff resources necessary to attain them. Questions that need to be answered at this stage include: • What are the future objectives that the organisation needs to achieve? Especially in the context of PKP PLK – what is the number and level of complexity of projects to be implemented and what is their projected timeframe? • How many employees will the organisation need to achieve the projected objectives?