The solvents DMF and methanol were distilled for purification. Other chemicals were used as obtained. 2.2 Preparation of polystyrene (PS) Polystyrene prepared by free radical polymerization of styrene monomer. Styrene (1 mole) was taken in a round bottom flask (RBF) fitted with a reflux condenser. DMF was used as a solvent and AIBN (0.5% w/w of total monomer) as free radical initiator .The reaction was carried out at 70±2° C for 6 hour with constant stirring.
Then the bank note was washed by either 20 ml Milli-Q water or 5 ml methanol. The bank note was dried and a second extraction was carried out to calculate the percent recovery. At the primary extraction, different concentration of methanol and PBS were examined. 100 %, 90%, 80%, 70%, 50% methanol: Milli-Q water and PBS were the solvent for extraction. The second extraction was mainly by 100 % methanol.
5 mL of 3M sodium hydroxide, 5 mL of de-ionized water, and 15 mL of hexane were added to the reaction flask and stirred. The mixture was transferred to a separatory funnel, separated into an organic layer and water layer, and then drained. The water layer was washed twice with 10 mL of hexane. The organic layer was dried
We then added 10cm3 ethanoic anhydride to the salicylic acid and swirled the contents, this mixes together the two chemicals. We then added 5 drops of concentrated sulphuric acid to the flask and thoroughly swirled the mixture, this creates the solution that makes the aspirin. We then warmed the flask for 20 minutes in a 400cm3 beaker of hot water which was approximately 60°C, we made sure the flask did not go above 65°C because this could have caused the contents to evaporate. Part 2: Using a 25cm3 measuring cylinder we measured out 15cm3 of ethanol into a boiling tube and then prepared a beaker half filled with hot water at approx. 75°C, we got this temperature by filling the beaker with cold water and slowly adding boiling water from a kettle until we reached the right temperature.
Add deionized water to the volumetric flask to the 250ml mark on the volumetric flask. 13. Read the volume from the bottom of the meniscus. 14. Swirl the solution to ensure that the oxalic acid crystals are properly dissolved in the deionised water.
Hence, a calcium chloride and cotton were filled inside a drying tube. The condenser was wrapped with parafilm and a paper towel to avoid moistures from entering. The reagent will act as nucleophilic addition to acetone and work up with hydrochloride acid to synthesize 2-methylhexanol. Throughout this process, the solution turns dark grey and develop white precipitates. This step indicate that Grignard reagent was generated, and the extra white precipitates were magnesium.
Then five millilitres of sample “A” was placed in the test tube labeled “A”. This was then repeated with the next three samples. 20 drops of Biuret reagent were then added to each test tube. The colour of each test tube was recorded and if proteins were present that was recorded for each test tube. Finally, the pH was recorded for each sample using pH
Each grounded drug tabled was transferred into a test tube using a spatula. Each test tube was labeled as Tylenol or Anacin. A 2.5ml of 50:50 mixtures of the methylene chloride and ethanol was added to each test tube. The content of each test tube was thoroughly stirred using a glass rod to ensure maximum extraction. The developing chamber for the TLC plates was prepared by adding ethyl acetate that contained 0.5% acetic acid to the glass jar.
Finally, magnesium stearate (passed through a 60-mesh/250 micron screen) was introduced to the powder mixture. The final mixture was shaken manually for 5-10 min in a plastic bag. This powder was passed through the hopper of 16 station rotary tabletting machine and punched into tablets using 8mm s/c. the process is similar for all core formulations, which are prepared by direct compression technique. FORMULATION OF ENTERIC COATED TABLETS OF PANTOPRAZOLE SODIUM Formulation design: Pantoprazole enteric coated tablets were prepared using different polymers like HPMC 5cps (sub coat) AQOAT, CAP and KOLLICOAT MAE 30DP.
ZPFe (3 mol%) was added to a mixture of a benzoyl chloride (10 mmoL) and an aromatic compound (10 mmoL). The reaction mixture was stirred for the appropriate reaction times at 80 °C (Table 2). After completion of the reaction (monitored by thin-layer chromatography, TLC), the mixture was diluted with Et2O and filtered. The organic layer was washed with 10% NaHCO3 solution and then dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. The solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure and the product purified by column chromatography on silica gel to give the corresponding pure aryl
Then, the pipet was rinsed with distilled water. The bulbs were then attached to the pipette; filling and dispensing water were practiced using both bulbs. Furthermore, the 250-mL beaker was weighed, and its mass was recorded. After that, the Erlenmeyer flask was filled with 100 mL of distilled water. The temperature was recorded.
The dried roots of Inula racemosa were pulverized and sieved with 100 ~ 200 mesh. The herb powder was placed into a glass bottle. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was carried out in an ultrasonic cleaner RK102H (Bandelin sonorex, Germany). The powder of Inula racemosa was extracted three times under the following conditions: the ratio of material to solvent was 10:1, undergoing ultrasonic treatment 30 minutes at 25 °C, 100 kHz /450 W.31 Before large extraction, a small-scale extraction experiments were carried out: 95% ethanol and ethyl acetate as the extractive solutions was investigated, respectively. The extraction efficiency was evaluated according to the percent content of AL and IS contained in the dried roots of Inula racemosa and calculated