Taking on the huge preventive measures that will facilitate to resist, identifying potentially negative attitude, impressions and preferences. Although evaluating these attitudes which stems from genuine, personal experiences or whether they are the product of marketing campaigns or popular prejudices. Performing their own direct surveys, and also studies a relevant research to find out the criteria and significant of variables that will affect a customers decision of whether to buy their product or service. If negative customer’s attitudes on the way to their product or service stem from an real experience with it, look for ways to revamp their offerings in order to resist these negative perceptions. Focus on directly addressing customers disappointment, based on the outcome of their research.
The short story “Cathedral” by Raymond Carver along with “Flight Patterns” by Sherman Alexie show those negative impacts of stereotypes that not only affect the victims of stereotyping but also change the characters’ personality negatively. The main characters in both stories dismiss and judge others based on their own perceptions about different types of people but in the end they realize that because of having the stereotypes so deep-rooted in their minds caused them trouble accepting the reality. Although these two stories are different, there’s one thing that they both contain. They both deal with characters that misjudge other people. The main character in “Cathedrals” is a perfect example of how the stereotypes can affect a person and his/her personality.
Brand recognition is defined as consumers’ capability to confirm their prior exposure to the brand when given the brand as a cue; brand recall refers to whether consumers can retrieve the brand from memory when given the product category as a cue (Keller, 1993). The depth of brand awareness concerns the likelihood that the brand can be recognised or recalled and the breadth of brand awareness relates to the variety of purchase and consumption situations in which the brand comes to mind. (Keller 1993, 3; Keller 1998).Brand awareness affects consumer decision making by influencing the formation and strength of brand associations in the brand image. (Keller 1993). In a study, respondents were asked about ads, using a cue.
2.4.1 Attitudes The study of attitudes has become an important aspect in both the arena of advertising and consumer behavior. A possible reason behind this is that it helps predicting consumer behaviors such as purchase decision, brand choice and evaluation (De Mooij, 2010; Leon, Schiffman, Kanuk, & Hansen, 2012; Mitchell & Olson 1981; Schiffman & Kanuk, 2004; Solis, 2011). It is stated that anything that an individual has an attitude or internal evaluation is regarded as an attitude objective (Solomon et al., 2010). Attitudes also to a great extent influence an individual’s decision-making (Fill, 2009) and purchase behavior (Leon, Schiffman, Kanuk, & Hansen, 2012). Schiffman and Kanuk (2004) also suggested that consumers’ preference depends on their attitudes towards the product.
THEORY AND MODEL Philip Kotler (1995) has developed model of consumer decision making process which is widely used to understanding customers purchasing decision. Kotler (1995) stated that a purchasing decision is determined by the customer’s personal characteristic and evaluation process, along with the external stimulation environment. The detail of theories will be state in the sequel: By theory of Kotler (1995), external stimulation can be divided in two groups. 1. Marketing stimulation which is linked to marketing mix (Price, Place, Product, and Promotion).
2.5 Quality Perception Consumers infer quality relying on cues ranging from brand name to price, and even advertising endeavours. In consumer research, it is known that consumers form subjective beliefs regarding the product quality based on prior knowledge, as well as cognitive competencies of each individual consumer. Thus, from a consumer perspective, quality research involves perceived quality. Hence, more specifically, perceived quality could be explained as the consumer's judgment about a product's overall excellence or superiority (Zeithaml, 1988). Commonly, consumers desire quality and value, however, these terms have abstract meanings that are difficult to pinpoint (Solomon 2011; Šredl and Soukup 2011).
1 Literature on ‘Acculturation’ and ‘Consumer Culture’ Author(s) Main Phenomena Theoretical contributions Berry (1997) Immigration, Acculturation and Adaptation Novel framework developed through which acculturation and adaptation can be evaluated. Quester & Chong (2001) Comparative study of two models of Acculturation Provide an insight into the measurement of acculturation under different levels of consumer decision-making processes. Padilla & Perez (2003) A new perspective of Acculturation Proposed model of acculturation based on four new components (social identity, social stigma, social cognition and cultural
Some studies showed that negative information about celebrities does harm to the brand image and reputation, and even reduces consumers’ purchase intention (Till and Shimp, 1998; Edwards and La Ferle, 2009). The influence of the negative celebrity information on brand image and reputation is heavy when that information was exposed before the association has been built between the celebrity and the brand (Till and Shimp, 1998). Moreover, according to Edwards and La Ferle’s research (2009), men and women were equally affected by negative information. In their research, participants of both genders were found to reduce their appreciation for the celebrities and the brands endorsed (Edwards and La Ferle, 2009). From the economic perspective, potential hazards might in some cases offset positive aspects in terms of company stock price behavior
Introduction “Advertising is considered as a metaphor of genuineness in context to the societal image”. On the other hand advertising without any qualm is considered as an influence factor for our culture. These two lines are contradicting to each other but this is truth which is coming across as a dilemma for the advertisers and the audience. The advertisements shown in the print media, and television and broadcast at one point of time showcase the cultural remarks of the society and on the other hand it is seen that it attempts to influence the society, culture and norms. Advertisements are considered as cultural indicator which is a matter to asses.
Marketing is the procedure of conveying the value of an item or service to clients, with the end goal of offering that item or service. Marketing systems incorporate picking target advertises through business sector examination and business sector division, and also understanding customer conduct and publicizing an item's quality to the client. From a societal perspective, promoting is the connection between a general public's material prerequisite and its financial examples of reaction. Marketing fulfills these needs and needs through trade methodologies and building long haul connections. Advertising mixes craftsmanship and connected science, (for example, behavioral sciences) and makes utilization of data innovation.