to the hospitals, nursing home establishment and also the environment. Healthcare Waste Management means the managing of waste generated by the hospitals using such processes which can check and prevent the spread of infections. Inadequate awareness regarding HWM in developing countries is resulting in dumping of hospital waste with general municipal waste. Such lapses in HWM are most important factors leading to ineffective management of hospital waste in most of the poor and developing countries. In Pakistan, a large part of hospital waste is also dumped with municipal waste.
In India this could range from 15% to 35% depending on the total amount of waste generated (Glenn & Garwal, 1999; Anonymous, 1998; Chitnis et al., 2005)Exposure to medical waste can result in disease or injury, were the risk of sharps injury and bloodstained body fluids BBF exposure appeared high in medical waste hospitals (MWHs) (Shiferaw et al., 2012) . In UK reported 40 incidents of sharps injuries associated with medical waste handling (Franka et al., 2009), in developed countries have shown that occupational exposure to waste may result in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection (Dounias et al., 2005). Hospital-waste handling is a hazardous waste activity which requires a high standard of training. It calls for specific training that depends on the nature of the work in the hospital, the hazards and possibility of worker exposure, and the responsibilities of individual workers (Manyele and Anicetus, 2006). The training must not only be continuous, but also comprehensive, integrated and structured with the necessary elements.
Asthma in Connecticut As a common chronic non-communicable disease, asthma has immensely affected as many as 334 million people across the globe (Global Asthma Network, 2014). Asthma did not only cause substantial burden to people, but it often caused a reduced quality of life because of its physical, psychological, economic, and social effects. Hence, it is important that healthcare institutions are able to provide appropriate medication to cure asthma. In line with this assertion, this paper will discuss about the background of the disease. This paper will also provide for a review of current surveillance methods for reporting the disease for providers, and a descriptive analysis of the disease.
Generally, death due to indoor air pollution, mainly particulate matters, in the rural areas of India is one of the highest in the world. The deaths often are due to acute respiratory infections in children; others are due to cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases in adults. (Meilu et al
It is a dangerous condition that requires immediate diagnosis and urgent appropriate treatment . Surgeons are mainly concerned with intestinal obstruction because accurate and early recognition of bowel strangulation still remains a difficult problem and is associated with high morbidity and mortality . The majority of surgeons, therefore, continue to support the idea that the sun should not rise or set on patients with acute intestinal obstruction, in other words, they contend that early operation is always necessary . Intestinal ischemia is a major health problem that accounts for 1-2% of intestinal diseases. In United States, intestinal ischemia accounts for 0.1% of all hospital admissions, the incidence of this condition has increased over the last few decades ( from 1 in 1000 to 1 in 200 hospitalization for abdominal pain).
BPA causes reduction in sperm counts in fertile men, increase breast cancer in women and testicular cancer in men. Emissions into the atmosphere from many human activities especially industrial activities also compromise health if not managed well. Particulate matter has been associated with respiratory problems. Ground-level ozone is an oxidising agent, which can lead to respiratory health problems and premature mortality. Long term exposures to nitrogen dioxide have been associated with bronchitis in asthmatic children and reduced lung function.
These pollutants affect humans, animals, plants and atmosphere. Their effects are indeed many and wide-ranging. The excessive levels of pollutants cause a lot of damage to human and animal health. For example air pollution reduces the lung functioning, cause irritation of mouth, throat, eyes and nose, asthma, respiratory symptoms like coughing and wheezing.Air pollutants like sulphur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen etc increases the respiratory diseases and reduces the energy level.Similarly water pollution causes many waterborne diseases like amoebiasis,hookworm,giardiasis,ascariasis and typhoid. The polluted water can damage the nervous system, liver, DNA and kidney.
Air pollution caused mortality and cardiovascular disease in population [1-3]. Studies showed that increased the daily air pollution concentrations associated with myocardial infarction  and heart failure . Air pollutants caused adverse effect on vascular tone, endothelial function, thrombosis, and myocardial ischaemia [6–9]. Nanomaterials could enter the blood, lymph, and bone marrow and arrived to lymph nodes, spleen and heart [10–12] and then affected in coagulation and heart rhythm [13, 14]. Studies showed that nanoparticles like TiO and C caused air pollution, inflammation, skin injury, and lung accumulation .
The main causes of this type of cancer are smoking, second-hand smoke, and environmental toxins. WHO estimates that in 2012, 1.6 million people died from trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers. These cancers represent about 2.9 percent of all deaths globally. . Another disease that is caused by these chemicals is the Chronic bronchitis which is ranked as the 3rd deadliest disease around the world .
Here are some of the most gruesome diseases caused by smoking*: Lung cancer- More people die from lung cancer than any other type of cancer. Cigarette smoking is the number one risk factor for lung cancer; it 's responsible for 87 percent of lung cancer deaths. COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)- COPD is an obstructive lung disease that makes it hard to breathe. It causes serious long-term disability and early death. ,Heart Disease, stroke, asthma, Reproductive Effects in Women, Premature, Low Birth-Weight Babies, Diabetes, Blindness, Cataracts and Age-Related Macular Degeneration and Over 10 Other Types of Cancer, Including Colon, Cervix, Liver, Stomach and Pancreatic Cancer.