Malthus had a pessimistic approach towards population growth. He believed higher the population higher would be the amount of resources required for them to sustain and would thus decrease a country's economy. They would require more number of homes, more jobs, more infrastructure. this can even be constructed in the long run if the population doesn’t grow at a fast pace, but in periods of rapid population growth, the population grows faster than the infrastructure available to accommodate it and hence increasing number of slums, depletion of resources etc. In such a case population growth does pose a challenge in front of economists, planners and the governing body.
Secondly, to sustain the cost that supply for the common goods, the economic surplus of leadership decreased gradually, even been using up. On the country, the benefit side grows faster than the hegemony, despite the Gilpin (1988), Keohane (2012) also mentioned that the free riders increased without efforts and would not share a load of hegemonic power, which made the predominance may not be sustainable. Thirdly, according to Webb and Krasner (1989), all countries are of benefit in the open market and public goods regardless of whether or not they assist in it. However, only the hegemon has sufficient motivation could they maintain a free economic system, open market and supply goods for international partners. The situation that other
It is this understanding that the public understands and values but it is lacking in standard intelligence tests. In a problem solving study using novel forms of analogies, Sternberg (1981) found that a higher level of intelligence is associated with spending relatively more time on global or higher order planning and relatively less time on local or lower order planning for
On 12 March 1868, John Stuart Mill first coined the word ‘dystopia’ in his Parliamentary speech on Mr. Maguire’s Motion on the State of Ireland (Mill, 1988). Dystopia is an antonym of utopia, a word that Sir Thomas More coined and used as the title of his famous work, Utopia in 1516 (More, 1516/1992). Editors Claeys and Sargent (1999) defined dystopia as a society that is invented to be far worse than contemporary society. Dystopia is also a society that is characterized on what is against the author’s characteristic spirit of a society, including oppression, public suspicion, and mass poverty (Apocalyptic Literature, 1993). A dystopian society is a menacing setting which serves as a warning to us about totalitarian futures that seem all too likely and real (Kennon, 2005).
Generally, big companies advance their knowledge of market, stay close to their customers, and prefer to develop existing technology gradually. Nevertheless, they experience difficulties with capitalizing on the potential efficiency, cost-savings, or new marketing opportunities created by low-margin disruptive technologies. Therefore, by doing so, companies provide an opportunity to “disruptive innovations” at the bottom of the market (Danneels 2004). It allows a whole new population of consumers at the bottom of a market access to a product or service that was historically only accessible to consumers with a lot of money or a lot of skill. Generally, products based on disruptive technologies are typically cheaper, simpler, smaller, and, frequently, more convenient to use (Yu& Hang 2008).
The climatic challenge is exaxerbated by inadequate infrastructure, lack of mechanization, and constraints in access to credit, insurance, and agricultural markets (Conceicao, et al., 2011). Devereux (2009) inferred that food security crises since 2000 in Africa were caused by a ‘failure of markets to deliver access to food at affordable prices’. This is due to either chronic poverty or a sudden increase in food prices without an equal increase in people’s wealth (Conceicao et al.,
Minimum wage was first established in 1938 by Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in an attempt to stimulate economic growth and create a better standard of living for the lower class. This attempt was fairly successful, but also has many consequences. You may be asking yourself, “how on Earth could setting a limit on how little you can pay someone be bad?” On the surface this statement seems logical, but if we delve deeper we begin to see many negative effects on the implementation of minimum wage. In our nation the minimum wage law almost seems out of place, like it doesn’t quite fit in. The reason for this, is the core mechanics within a market economy.
However, the effects of social protection expenditures of governments on long-run economic growth are not clear with two opposite evidence. On the one hand, the benefit these programs provide can discourage people from working. Because of the decline in the amount of labor supplied in the economy, the level of output and, in some circumstances, the level of capital investment and hence growth can lower. On the other hand, social protection expenditures will make a positive contribution to the economic growth since the individuals are insured against disease and unemployment risk and therefore they become more productive and motivated to work. These two different suggestions keep the debate open about whether social protection is an expenditure or an investment.
1) High growth rates of GDP per capita in developed countries are due to an increase and, after that, stabilization of the population in these countries; 2) High growth rates of production’s factors, especially labor productivity; 3) High rates of transformation of the structure in the economy (technological progress law); 4) High rates of social and ideological transformation - urbanization and secularization; 5) The ability of developed countries to find new markets and sources of raw materials, creating a global unity based on civil and military technologies; 6) Restriction of spread (1/3 countries of the world 's population have not yet reached the minimum level of that modern level of technology). All these characteristics of modern economic growth are closely interrelated. Therefore, the high growth income per capita is a consequence of the rapid growth in labor productivity. High incomes, in turn, lead to structural changes in demand, and consequently, to structural reorganization of the economy (as the demand for goods and services is increasing faster than the demand for food). Structural adjustment requires new technologies, which change the nature of the productive forces, its location and influence on the average-sized enterprises.
Cross-border transactions are growing rapidly and compliance with the differing requirements of overlapping tax jurisdictions is a complicated and time-consuming business. The theory of Transfer Pricing is based on the concept of ‘functions, risks and assets’. Transfer pricing for tax purposes determines the size of the taxable profit of a business unit, thus contributing to the effective tax burden of that specific unit. Transfer pricing is a mode by which Multinational Enterprises (MNE’s) makes huge profits by increasing the price of products or services in low tax jurisdictions and decreasing the price in high tax jurisdictions thereby shifting