(Fertner, Jorgensen, Nielsen & Nilsson, 2016). In recent years, policy makers are challenged by the impacts of Urban Sprawl on the community and environment. The growth of cities and metropolitans is encroaching over the natural landscape in an environmentally and aesthetically undesirable manner (Brueckner & Helsley, 2011). According to Brueckner and Helsley (2011), in response to the challenges and
Environment As noted above, the major causes of urbanization in Ghana are out-migration from rural areas to urban centers, in response to the lack of paid work and social services in rural areas. An increase in urban population puts pressure on existing resources such as land, water, and energy; it generates more waste, thus creating disposal problems. Other damaging effects include increased use of domestic and industrial chemicals, the spread of unplanned and blighted settlements, pollution of air and water, and the degradation of
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Health is essential to life; it is the wellbeing of an individual. The general overall condition of someone in terms of fitness, soundness, vitality and proper functioning. (Encarta 2009) Urbanization factor in Ogun state (i.e. the presence of Olusegun Obasanjo’s farm, Canaan land and Africa Leadership Forum) security, commercial centres and affordable housing causes cluster and improper control of these increases the health risk of the municipals. Rapid and unplanned urban growth is often linked with poverty, environmental degradation (any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be undesirable) and population demands that outstrip service capacity.
This migration to the suburbs and rural areas is a huge cause of decentralization. Morris argues that along with denying us the fulfillment of a healthy community life, sprawl is also a heavy economic burden since the economic aspects played as well an important role in the spread out of cities. By continuously developing land further and further out from already established civic infrastructure, sprawl increases local taxes, imposes significant national overhead costs, and is detrimentally expensive on a personal level as well (Morris,2005). Economically, urban sprawl has been shown to be highly inefficient, especially in the provision of services and infrastructure by local governments. However, once again there is a strong mismatch between the individual economic effects of
Runoff from such concretized surfaces has a high velocity in flow during and after rainfall, which increases storm water in drainage systems in built-up areas. This increases peak flow and overland flow volume and decreases natural groundwater flow as percolation is near impossible and evapotranspiration. Urban runoff has increased pollution and contamination of water bodies in the environment, which leads to serious environmental consequences (Parkinson, et al, 2010). The traditional model of storm water management is based on a misconception by people which the main aim is to drain urban runoff as quick as possible from the environment through channels and pipes and this increases peak flows and costs of storm water management in urban system. This type of solution has been observed to promote or transfer flood problems from one section of the basin of an urban area to another section.
Outcome Dimension 2: Natural Environment and Resources Goal To protect and conserve ecosystems and natural resources Context The natural environment provides many social and economic benefits and is an essential component of urban sustainability. The environment provides food, water, and other essential commodities. Healthy ecosystems regulate the climate and attenuate the effects of extreme weather events, while improving residents’ quality of life and well-being. However, urbanization and overconsumption of resources are placing great pressure on natural environments. Expansion of urban areas results in loss of natural habitats and decimation of biodiversity.
The result is, thus, a largely unplanned and haphazard urban growth. Thus, it is time that we recognize that rehousing the poor in decent low- rent dwelling units cannot alone solve the other equally pressing problems like unemployment, illiteracy, no social security, low income, family fragmentation and illness. Providing public services and infrastructure, cannot all by itself, do away with crime, illegitimacy, delinquency and deviant behavior. We as planners need to realize that following the typical physical planning approaches such as the neighborhood concept, which themselves are often driven by physical concepts such as zoning, land use planning etc., cannot alone redeem the vast scale social issues associated with urban
If these spaces are not adequately located while planning of the city, cities will become heat sinks and shall be unsuitable for habitation. Conventionally, human intervention is considered to be abrupt and short time-scaled, as against the age-long time scale of natural processes; which created the natural landscape. Nevertheless, the human interventions should be comprehensively planned and executed over a longer time scale complimenting the natural landscape in time and
“Today, 54 percent of the world’s population lives in urban areas, a proportion that is expected to increase to 66 percent by 2050. Projections show that urbanisation combined with the overall growth of the world’s population could add another 2.5 billion people to urban populations by 2050, with close to 90 percent of the increase concentrated in Asia and Africa, according to a new United Nations report. The largest urban growth will take place in India, China and Nigeria. These three countries will account for 37 percent of the projected growth of the world’s urban population between 2014 and 2050. By 2050, India is projected to add 404 million urban dwellers, China 292 million and Nigeria 212 million” (https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/Publications/Files/WUP2014-PressRelease.pdf
The definition of environmental sustainability hinges on distinguishing between growth and development. Large urban population, their rapid growth and affluence are not always sustainable. This kind unscrupulous growth often decreases people’s welfare, and put adverse effect on environmental sustainability (Daly and Cobb,