Negative Effects Of Weeds In Agriculture

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A weed is a plant growing where it is not desired (Klingman and Noordhoff, 1961). Weeds are very common, dominant and wide spread in the crop fields. Weed interference is one of the most important factors to decrease the yields of all crops. Weeds are the oldest problem in agriculture since about 10000 B.C. and have represented one of the main limiting factors in profitable crop production (Avery, 1997). They are the most complex and serious problems in natural resource management. Weeds cause significant losses each year in agriculture, forestry, and aquaculture, also affect the health, causing allergies and other health hazards (Handerson and Anderson, 1996). Apart from quantitative losses caused by weeds due to competition for water, light, space and nutrients, they also cause qualitative indirect damage due to unitary seed reduction, contamination of seeds, slowing of tillage and harvesting practices (Anderson, 1983; Asthon and Monaco, 1991).

In India, many alien species such as Parthenium hysterophorus L. Lantana camera L. and Phalaris minor Retz. have significant negative impacts on the ecosystems, economic systems and human health because of their high reproductive capacity, diverse dispersal mechanisms and colonization ability in new habitats, capacity to out-compete native species(Bhowmik, 2014). Profuse growth of several weeds with high invasive capacity coupled with poor fertility status often becomes limiting factor in crop cultivation. Aggressive growth of the
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