Changes brought by the development of tourism can be seen in such aspects as natural resources, environment, consumption patterns, socio-economic systems, as well as pollution degree. Correspondingly, sustainable tourism has become an issue top on the agenda for the survival of the whole industry. However, before rushing into any actions, it is important first to understand the definition of sustainable tourism. Basing on UNEP and UNWTO (2005), sustainable tourism can be defined as “Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities”. Suggested by the definition, a balance among local environment, economy, and socio-culture must be achieved to guarantee the long-term sustainability of destinations (ibid.).
The interaction between tourists and poor communities can provide a number of intangible and practical benefits. These can range from increased awareness of cultural, environmental, and economic issues and values, on both sides, to mutual benefits from improved local investment in infrastructure. At the world conference held in Manila on tourism in 1980, importance of tourism and its effects were recognized in the declaration, which stated as; ‘’tourism is an essential activity both on the life of the nation since its direct and indirect effects on economical, social, cultural, and educational sectors of the society and their international relations’’. Economic benefits of tourism 1. Contribution to Gross Domestic Product; Tourism is being one of the world’s largest industries and contributes directly and indirectly (total contribution) to the global economy.
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION The fastest developing industry in the world is Tourism. According to World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC,1995) engaging approximately 200 million individuals and generating or making a global GNP of 12% , tourism is the largest industry. In the developing countries, with the growth of tourism there are also concerns for sustaining the environment as people have become more and more cautious and aware about exploiting their natural resources. As a result, there is now increasing agreement on the need to promote sustainable tourism development to minimize its environmental impact and to maximize socio-economic overall benefits at tourist destinations. As referred from UN, 2001, tourist activities that manage
it lacks the financial resources to maintain operations, it will cease to exist. Weaver assures that “all sustainable tourism strategies must be formulated within the financial capabilities of the managing body” . Sustainable economic development participates in reducing the environmental impacts. Tourism is an economic activity that often takes place in natural environments, and to assure its sustainable future, a mutual beneficial relationship has to be developed between the two. In several locations, if income isn't provided by tourism to aid the natural environment preservation, local resources would go unprotected.
A sustainable tourist destination should have viable, long-term economic operations, that have economic benefits towards stakeholders. Tourism is very positive for the hosting countries, especially if they are developing countries. However, this doesn't make it sustainable. As the tourist industry develops and more and more tourists go to a destination, the infrastructure also has to be improved. Since the amount of tourists coming is increasing, the hosting country needs to improve the roads, airports, and other kinds of infrastructure.
Tourism industry has both impacts which are positive impacts and negative impacts. The impacts of tourism can be divided into seven common categories which is economic, environment, social cultural, crowding and congestion, services, taxes and community attitude. There are several positive impacts for tourism in the perspective of economic. It can contribute to income and standard of living; improves and contribution to local economy; raising employment opportunities, improve investment, development and infrastructure spending, raise government tax revenues; improves public utilities infrastructure; improve transport infrastructure; raising opportunities for shopping; economic impact is widespread in the community; creates new business opportunities;
According to Mitchell (2010), 40% of all tourist trips were to developing countries. Nevertheless it is important to analyze the positive and negative impacts of tourism on developing countries due to high sensitivity of their economies and since many governments are switching from supporting traditional industries to tourism due to significant debate in favor of
Chapter One First, Introduction: Tourism is the fastest growing industry, which provides enormous compensation to both local and global community. The sector participates in financial activities all over the world and it creates wide job opportunities. Great development in the tourism sector remains to have a vast influence on financial growth in several fields as it works as a motivation for economic development. Furthermore, financial growth of the nations improves development of the tourism sector; consequently, an economic fluctuation will have an unfavorable result on tourism. Current credit crunch crisis has evolve from other key crises that have happened in industrial world in recent decades and spread to emerging economies and less
Some of these disadvantages include social and environmental costs, such as the pollution of the air, mainly produced by the airline transportation, and depletion of natural resources, such as water, and many more. Other issues that arise from tourist industry, include the distortion of traditions, and cultures. In addition, there are some hidden costs of tourism, that indirectly affect the black market. In some developing countries, for example in Thailand, there is a “sex tourism”, which grows parallel with the mass tourism . This results in commercial sexual exploitation of children and young women.
RATIONALE The tourism industry has been mark to be one of the most dynamic sectors in the world nowadays and has created different forms and branches. Due to fast modernization and advancement of technology, individuals especially the travelers can have a wide access to different destinations even the ones that are located in remote areas. With this, tourism is now one of the fastest growing segments compared to other industries. One of the branches of tourism industry that is gaining prestige and popularity is ecotourism which offers remarkable and distinctive nature, historic and cultural experiences. This branch not only intends to showcase nature attractions but also to develop a sense of environmental consciousness among the local tourist