Mastectomy is a medical term for the surgical removal of cancerous tissues from one or both breast (partially or completely). Mastectomy is usually carried out to treat breast cancer. In some cases, women at high risk of breast cancer can have the operation as a prophylactic or preventive measure. In some cases, some patients can choose to have lumpectomy which involves wide local excision of a small volume of breast tissue containing the tumor. Mastectomy and lumpectomy are local therapies for breast cancer because it targets the area of the tumor compared to systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy).
The following case study is conducted in regards to a 34-year-old women diagnosed with pheochromocytoma after an episode of malignant hypertension. Pheochromocytoma has been studied extensively, and the pathophysiology has been determined to be a result of a rare tumor that starts in the cells of the adrenal glands and causes increased and inappropriate hormone secretion. The resulting symptoms of the tumor are unspecific and includes, high blood pressure, sweating, irregular heartbeat and headache. The vague signs and symptoms of pheochromocytoma lead to a difficult and commonly misdiagnosed disease. The treatment options are limited to the surgical removal of the tumor.
K, Chandra s, kumar S, Pangtey G, Mohan A, & Guleria R in 2009 describes about various delay in diagnosis of lung cancer and It is common in Medical field that cancer in lung is misdiagnosed as negative tuberculosis. In countries having been affected by TB a lot can be caused by the wrong diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). Finding out and diagnosis of lung cancer can help to increase the chance of tumor resectability and through chemo-radiotherapy person’s life can be saved.The methods that have been taken has Proven that lung cancer patients was treated for anti-tubercular treatment (ATT) due to identical symptoms. This was studied in the period and all the data was collected through Patient interview and medical records. The result shows that total of 14 out of 70 patients has received wrong diagnosis of tuberculosis and had received ATT for twelve male, two female.
In breast cancer as the E-cadherin becomes low the invasiveness also become reduced. Biologists showed that E-cadherin are acting as inhibitors on the plane of the breast cancer cells and the named E-cadherin as invasion suppressor genes. However, they do not proved whether producing E-cadherin can affect cancer on far organ or not. If cancer cells want to spread in distant part it need some steps to achieve far parts, but when e-cadherin are producing it do not allow separation or deatachment of any cancer cells at first site before the intravastions. Also, it is available after intravastions E-cadherin cans stop cancer cells at metastatic part or make aggregations of platelets within capillaries which are resulting in making metastatic.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1Introduction Cancer is a major root cause of disease among human deaths in many developed countries. Cancer Prediction or classification in medical practice trusted on clinical and histopathological facts could be produce incomplete or misleading results .The DNA microarray is very useful to determine the expression level of thousands of genes simultaneously in a cell mixture . DNA microarray technology has been applied to find out the accurate prediction and diagnosis of cancer. Molecular level diagnostics with gene expression profiles can offer the methodology of accurate and systematic cancer prediction. It’s very important for treatment of cancer to classify tumour accurately.
Mammography is specialized medical imaging examination that uses a low-dose x-ray system to see inside the breasts. It uses x-rays to take images of the breast from different angles. Doctors use a mammography exam, called a mammogram to look for early signs of breast cancer which helps in the early discovery and diagnosis of breast diseases. Regular mammograms are the best assessments doctors have to catch breast cancer early, sometimes up to three years before it can be felt. (ACR), 2018) .Breast screening is an effective way of detecting breast cancer, often at a very early stage, when there are no outward signs.
It is used to find out cancer cells in the cerebrospinal fluid, the liquid that surrounds the spinal cord and brain. During this process, the patient will be injected for local anaesthesia in the lower part of the back near the spinal cord. Then the doctor inserts a small, hollow needle between the bones of the spine to remove some fluid from the spinal column. This fluid is tested under a microscope to look for cancer cells. Although this test is considered safe, but doctors need to take extra care while withdrawing the fluid so that the pressure in the fluid does not drop largely, which could give rise to serious health issues.
In this study, the researchers would like to take a look into the coping mechanism of breast cancer patients and their caregivers. Breast cancer patients may feel scared, uncertain, or angry about the unwanted changes cancer will bring to life. According
Therefore, segmentation of breast mass in the mammography computer aided diagnosis (CAD) plays an important role in the quantitative and qualitative analysis of medical images. It has a direct impact on the analysis and treatment of early breast cancer. In today’s life breast cancer is a severe problem due to environmental causes, diet and lifestyle. Mammography is an effective breast cancer detection tool. Since the number of patients is increasing, there is a need of an automated computer system.
For my mom, when the doctors told her she was cured, it was the end of her physical suffering with breast cancer, but the battle with breast cancer has not ended. The ending experience of her physical pain, and the removal of the tumour itself is what Frank calls the restitution narrative. Specifically, he describes this narrative as when the individual’s physical body returns back to its initial healthy state (Frank 2013, 90). Despite her pain suffering ending, her battle with societal expectations, and an established culture of cancer has not. I use Frank’s quest narrative as a way of demonstrating society’s expectation of a cancer survivor having a quest narrative after coming out alive, and the impacts of these standards.