Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History (1996) by Cathy Caruth is an essential reference in the trauma field. Cathy Caruth is one of the key figures in contemporary trauma theory. She has famously redefined it as “the event is not assimilated or experienced fully at the time, but only belatedly, in its repeated possession of the one who experiences it” (4). It re-surfaces in a fragmented form as traumatic flashbacks, nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and repetitive re-enactments. Trauma becomes part of the survivor’s identity, and is in Freud’s terms, "acted out" (Remembering, Repeating 36), as if it happens in real time.
Though there are certain means by which the human mind can be analysed, most of its unconscious domains are impenetrable. Freud developed his Psychoanalysis as a means to understand the relation between the somatic reality of the senses and language. He again postulated that the basic reason for hysteria n individuals is the result of Oedipus complex, an absence of the resolution of childhood sexuality. Freud thus makes his clinical theory a critique of society and culture. Freud’s theory of society and culture are diametrically opposed to Kant’s theory of the progressive rationalization and consequent freedom and maturity of the individual.
. Christie’s detective world is very much a product of the post World War I ‘modernist’ cynicism which also rendered in humans, a sense of introspection. As Poirot says, “It is the brain, the little grey cells on which one must rely. One must seek the truth within, not without.” The focus on the interiority of self can also be related with Freudian psychoanalysis as a way of gaining access to a complex, inner self. Confession, therefore, that relies solely on the inner being or the interiority of the mind, can be termed very much a modernist mode.
Trauma underlines the life of Liesel Meminger. Most of the major events that take place in her life are trauma inducing to some extent and a lot of her later actions seem to be rooted in these traumatic events. Based on the psychoanalytic ideas of Sigmund Freud, and later Jacques Lacan and Cathy Caruth, trauma theory purports that when traumatic events occur, the brain in a protective gesture, blocks them from fully entering consciousness. They are buried in the depths of the mind, for the large part inaccessible to the conscious individual in normal everyday life. However these traumatic stimuli refuse to stay repressed and resurface in the form of intrusive images or nightmares as symptoms of trauma-related illnesses such as PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder).
Freud’s psychoanalytical background branches into the studies of the subconscious, creating a history for each individual’s interpretation of the uncanny. In this essay, Freud elicits the ambiguity that lies within the study of the uncanny and its close acquaintance, the unfamiliar. Ernst Jentsch, the earliest analyst of the uncanny, concluded that the uncanny, or unheimlich, is the fear of the unfamiliar
Repression in Freud and Freyd Freud describes repression as the act of blocking unacceptable urges, but this phenomenon is not that simple. Ever since he popularized using repression to describe cases of abnormal forgetting, alternative theories of repression have been formulated. In contrast to Freud, Freyd theorizes that repression occurs when someone is abused by a close caregiver, and to survive, they must repress their memories of the abuse to maintain a relationship with their caregiver. Her theory diverges from Freud’s as she is more focused on the abuse causing the repression while Freud is more concerned about the ramifications of acting upon taboo desires. Likewise, both authors use survival as a core concept in their theories.
Sigmund Freud Freud and Adler worked together from the beginning in the development of psychoanalytic theory (Adler & Fleisher, 1988). After 10 years, they parted ways. Adler was opposed to Freud’s focus on the sexual nature and its effect on the human psyche (Corey, 2009). Therefore, Adler replaced Freud’s excessive focus on sexual motivation and brought in the concept of inferiority complex (Corey, 2009). The two parted ways because Freud was intolerant to ideas that divergent his own.
Opposition to strictly sociological approach of Durkheim was also ignited after the publication of his book Suicide. Psychologists and psychiatrists argued that suicide stems from depression or other psychological disorder and cannot be explained by sociology. This discussion partly continues till present (Giddens