Neo-Gramscianism Analysis

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3. Hegemony and World Order: Neo-Gramscianism Approach to IR Social forces, state and IR: transcending existing theories One of the theoretical ambitions of Cox is to explore the different configuration of state and society complexes and their implication for IR study. In this theoretical process, he especially emphasized social dimension of the state, which are most clearly seen in Gramscian concepts of hegemony, historical bloc, and civil society. On the one hand, beware of underrating state power; on the other hand, he gave additional attention to social forces and process to see how they relate to the development of states and world order. The Gramscian approach to IR thus provides a way to conceptualize world order free of the constraints…show more content…
Conclusion: Beyond Orthodoxy Agency-structure arguments of Neo-Gramscianism Neo-Gramscian approach is a specific form of structuralist historicism. As Robert Cox points out in his article, structure in Gramscian approach is opposed to structuralism of Althusser and Balibar, or from a different tradition of Waltz. It is true that in Neo-Gramscianism approach, structure is the analysis unit, however it differs from the structural Marxism represented by Althusser in that it has taken the role of human being into consideration. It has human dimension: historical structure is the real result of collective human interaction, and although social action is constrained by prevailing social structure, however the historical is transformed by agency. Neo-Gramscianism has taken a structural thinking but never structure determining. It also differs from neo-realism structuralism in that the international structure in Neo-Gramscianism is space and time constrained, just as stated by Cox in 1981, imperialism is loose concept in practice to be defined with reference to each historical period. Thus in the Neo-Gramscianism approach, historical structure is what can be called limited totalities. The historical structure does not represent the whole world, but rather a particular sphere of human activity in its historically located…show more content…
In this sense, the mainstream theory is conservative, while critical Neo-Gramscianism theory, by analysis of forces and trends, attempts to discern possible futures and to point to the conflicts and contradictions in the existing world order that could move things towards one or other of the possible futures, allows for a normative choice in favor of a social and political order different from the prevailing

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