Neo-Gramscianism In Sociology Of International Relations

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Neo-Gramscianism in Sociology of International Relations: Robert Cox Neo-Gramscianism is a critical theory based on the study of international relations and global political economy. This theory explores different ideas, institutions and material capabilities, how do these ideas form the specific contours of the state appearance. The main idea of this theory is strongly influenced by the works of Antonio Gramsci. Neo-Gramscianism analyzes the way in which the specific social forces, the state and the dominant ideological formations define and maintain world order. On this basis, neo-Gramscian approach destroys long-term stagnation and contradictions that exist between the so-called realist school of thought and liberal theory. This approach…show more content…
This approach contrasts with the positivism and constructivism, which consider the main approaches through "rejection of the separation of subject and object ... dialectic understanding and acceptance of reality as a dynamic totality and as a unity of opposites". The basic of the theory is its special view at hegemony. View of neo-Gramscians on the hegemony different from the realistic one. Realists consider hegemony as a "dominant power of the state (group of states)". Neo-Gramscians look at hegemony from the perspective of class relations. Class is considered as hegemony if it legitimized its domination by means of institutions and concessions. When a class has established dominance also in formal political structures of the state, it is a historical bloc. Neo-Gramscians argue that due to process of globalization the neoliberal transnational historical bloc either already exist or at least beginning to emerge and…show more content…
"Gramsci, in effect, took over an idea that was current in the circles of the Third International: the workers exercised hegemony over the allied classes and dictatorship over the enemy class." According to Cox, in Northern Europe, in the countries where capitalism had first become established, bourgeois hegemony was most complete. The second strand leading to the ideas of Gramscian hegemony observed in the writings of Machiavelli and helps further expand the potential scope of application of this concept. Gramsci analyzed what Machiavelli wrote, especially in "The Emperor", on the issue of creating a new state. Cox wonders: is the concept of Gramscian hegemony applicable at the international or world level? In applying the concept of hegemony to world order, it becomes important to determine when a period of hegemony begins and when it ends. A period in which a world hegemony has been established can be called hegemonic and one in which dominance of a non-hegemonic kind prevails, non-hegemonic. To illustrate it, Cox considers the XIX century and a half of last century as falling into four distinguishable periods, roughly, 1845-1875, 1875-1945, 1945-1965 and 1965 to the present. [HEGEMONY AND WORLD

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