The Meiji period was a transformation process in Japan that was a direct response to the harsh conditions of the Tokugawa era. Lasting from 1868 to 1912 the Meiji period wanted to use “civilization” as a a mechanism for social order in Japan. The new government along with regaining control of what had been lost during the Tokugawa regime wanted to install new institutions. Control through institutions of education, legalism and moral training were some of the new ways in which the Meiji wanted to regain order and not fall behind the western world. A shift to western thought (bunmei) stemmed from this restoration period in Japan.
This revolutionary style marked the end of the Renaissance dominated era, and the beginning of the modern art. The Cubist art movement broke from centuries of tradition in their painting by rejecting the single viewpoint. Instead they used an analytical system in which three-dimensional subjects were fragmented and redefined from several different points of view simultaneously. Cubism main objective was to challenge the conventional form of the representation of perspective, and its aim was to develop a “new way of seeing” and represent reality. A new age of technological growth started from 1870 to 1910.
For Grossberg, the task is to "construct a vision for cultural studies out of its own intellectual and political history." (Cultural Studies vs Political economy. P. 3). His book is an attempt to set an agenda for cultural studies work in the present and into the future and to produce a cultural studies capable of responding to the contemporary worlds and the struggle constituting them. For Hartley, the task is to reform Cultural Studies; so that it takes into account digital media and the dialogic model of communication.
The 20th century literary scene of England saw the appearance of a new movement that reflected the transition to modern culture, whose change can be attributed to new discoveries of science and technology. This movement is called Modernism and it is a side effect of the cultural and economic adjustment to the transformation of Western society. Specific theories and premises that emerged during that time stimulated people’s mind and imagination, promting them to abandon old convetions and create something new. The main focus of Modernist literature is on metaphysics, which is caused by a sense of dread towards a cultural crisis. Postmodernism is a reaction to Modernism and it rejects and challenges almost every notion established by Modernism, but it also adopts and transforms some of them.
The characteristic of a revolution is that it leads to a paradigm shift. Kuhn defines paradigm shift as something that can be “popular or not so popular shift or transformation of the way we humans perceive event, people, environment and life together. I can be national or international shift and could have dramatic effects- whether positive or negative- on the way we live our lives today and in the future.” The shift to a new paradigm moves us to what Kuhn calls a new normal science and the process continues. (Chalmers,
The revolutionary settlement led to the enactment of a bill of rights that fundamentally altered the society and social and political institutions. The new settlement set the country on a path towards a constitutional monarchy. The Bill of Rights is considered to be the beginning of a new order. It is also credited with being a critical event because it turned England into an industrial nation and was the divide between the ancient and modern ways. While the great chain of being was medieval, this Settlement put England on the path to modernity.
Modernisation theory according to Mouton (2001; 27) refers to the transformation which takes place when a traditional society changes to an extent that new forms of technological organisational or social characteristics of an advanced society appears. Features that are associated with modernity can be shown to be related to the set of changes that brought into being the industrial type of society. Hence, industrialism is a way of life that encompasses profound economic, social, political and cultural changes. It is undergoing the comprehensive transformation of industrialisation that societies become modern. (Kumar, 2016) Modernisation includes different disciplines as it seeks to explain how society progresses, what variables affect the progress and how societies can react to that progress.
The industrial revolution changed the economic, political and social scenario. It has attempted to represent the actualities of any event. At that time it became an attempt to record life as it is lived. William Dean Howells defined realism as realism “is nothing more and nothing less than the truthful treatment of material.”8 This definition doesn’t answer regarding the actual treatment of truth. Other writers like Christopher Donovan in his bookPostmodern Counternarrative writes that in American literature, the term “realism” has been associated with a particular movement of writers in the so called Gilded Age, William Dean Howells and his often more talented cohorts, a loosely cohering school who in their rejection of commercially dominant novels of sentimentalism and romance and their avowed adherence to mundane truths of day to day life often served to expose social injustices sorely in need of remedy.
Many scholars of political science have tried to determine the causes of a successful process of democratization. In fact, while democratization is a process in itself, it is linked inevitably to the development of one country, In terms of institutional, economic, political but also the social aspect. The collapse of the communist regime in 1990 and the establishment of political pluralism marked the beginning of a new era for Eastern Europe and for Albania too. These events initiated the democratization agenda, involving state rebuilding processes, aiming at restoring not only the boundaries between politics and economics, but also the boundaries separating public from private, the state from civil society, and the regime from the state. The end of 1990 also marks the beginning of a transition period from
Humanistic is a belief system which based on human needs and values and not on a god or religion. It means that it is a man-centred study which possibly includes elements of mythology and tradition. Moreover, the writing is based on historian’s interpretation or called as self-reflectory. In order to make the autonomy is accurate; the writing of the evidences must avoid misinterpretations of the facts. Once it is misinterpreted, the accuracy and the authenticity of the autonomy will be hugely interrupted.