Essay On Neoliberalism In Italy

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In the last decades of the 20th century, Italy underwent a transformation towards a late modern society marked by increased mobility, a pluralism of lifestyles and decreased importance of religion and traditional networks. Neoliberal reforms led to privatization and the end of Fordism. While it came with the promise of social mobility, it diminished worker’s rights and led to unstable labor conditions. Neoliberalism and increased individualism stress the individual’s accountability and responsibility for his and her life, encourage the strive for happiness and self-fulfillment, and promote acceptance of individual freedom and rights. The downside is that workers are in constant competition, cases of mobbing increased and social cohesion decreased.…show more content…
During my research, I witnessed several occasions in which young boys were ordered not to cry because this is feminine behavior. Assertiveness in men is still appreciated, and they are supposed to be virile, protective, rational and emotionally indifferent. They are expected to be constantly interested in sex and hit on women even when married. Men are expected to take the first step to get to know a woman and to pay the bill. They are constantly pushed to prove their masculinity and the worst deviation from hegemonic masculinity is homosexuality. An attitude that rendered the life of my friend, Luigi, difficult since he was not willing to hide his sexual orientation and faced disapproval and discrimination including from his family. The relationship between masculinity and morality is complicated since masculinity requires auto-control and a high sense of morality, while men are perceived as violent and predatory. The concept of overly dominant violent heads of family is rejected today and violence against women is condemned. However, on one occasion I had the questionable pleasure of talking to a young man that told me with great pride about beating his supposedly unfaithful girlfriend and her supposed lover severely. Even if this was a single case, the norms regarding masculinity are conflicting and
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