Origins and Advocates Neoliberalism is rooted in transnational scholarship that emerged in response to globalization of the 1970s. Transnationalism, or sociological liberalism, emphasizes the impact of transnational networks between state and non-state actors. Transnationalists such as Rosenau and Burton believe that with increased interaction across borders, military force as a tool of statecraft is replaced by an interdependent human society among pluralistic actors. Neoliberal institutionalists of the 1980s and 1990s, notably Keohane, constituted a state-centric analytical confrontation with the neorealist arguments of Kenneth Waltz in particular. Other examples of Neoliberal institutionalists include Ney, Krasner, and Oye, among others.
This study will draw from feminist media theory and African feminist media theory and it has also included the theory of intersectionality, these theories will be discussed below. Scholars of media and gender do not apply similar theoretical frameworks, there are options for applying various theories in various studies, although the medium of media being studied is the same. Previous scholars, Mannya (2010), Buiten (2009) and Katembo (2005) used various theories such as discourse theory, cultural studies theory, gender studies theory, media theory and construction theory in their studies. Feminist media theory will be the anchor theory in this study, a brief discussion of African feminist media theory as an approach to locate the study geographically will allow for a discussion of feminist media theory by African feminist scholars and in conclusion intersectionality will be applied to the discussion on the intersecting themes of race and gender that are pivotal in this study. 5.1 Feminist Media Theory In defining media studies, South African scholar Buiten (2010:80) states that, “broadly speaking, feminist media studies can be said to be the study of the media through a feminist lens.” Buiten’s definition suggests that feminist media studies can only be viewed through a “feminist lens” thus implying that feminist theory is used to analyse and question the media.
Neoliberalism is a political ideology that has become one of the dominant schools of thought in many modern countries, and has therefore become intricately woven into the globalization of society. Globalization is a broad term that refers to the increasing relations between different countries that spans all aspects of life, inclusive of social, political, and economic. It is this increasing sense that these relationships stretch across borders of specific countries that helps to create more global citizens as opposed to national citizens (Steger 15). With the governments of countries becoming increasingly involved with one another, and with neoliberalism being so present in these countries political ideologies, it makes sense that neoliberalism would play a vital role in current globalization. By examining some of the main tenants of neoliberalism philosophy, and through studying concrete examples, we can see how they have been influential in shaping modern routes of globalization, while also taking into consideration that this may not be inherently good by examining pushback.
Media contribute to maintain that system. Media has a great influence upon the audience and it could be judge from what that is not said, so media works to maintain the status quo and at the same time it failed to raise the question about the structure of society. Commercially sponsored mass media cannot work for minor changes in the social system. Some media can be progressive only if the sponsors are agreed upon. Impact on Popular taste
Structuralism in digital media and editorial cartoons in post-9/11 America There are over two billion social network users as of the year 2015 with a projected annual increase of around two hundred million (Statista). These social networks and in a wider scale, the digital media are one of the trademarks of the 21st century. It has led to the emergence of a digital media culture that reflects common place culture in different societies based on the structuralism theory. Digital media has also been utilized by groups and activists that carry different ideas and influence to promote their status and development. One example is the growing number of extremist organizations on digital media, following the U.S. war on terror, competing for hegemony
The economic theory of neoliberalism is based on the premise that government cannot create economic growth or provide social welfare. It is the private companies, private individuals and the unhindered markets that are best able to generate economic growth and social welfare. The philosophy of neoliberalism is supported by powerful nations and transnational corporations. Transnational corporations that have subsidiaries in several countries, control much of the world’s investment capital and have access to international markets. Neoliberalism is the updated version of the liberal economics of the 18th and 19th centuries that supports the philosophy that unlimited competition in a free market is the best way to organise an economy because it forces everyone to perform with maximum efficiency.
Without adequate analysis, no convincing conclusion can be drawn on this subject. While multiple studies of different scholars have looked at the influence of the new media, the first four studies used in this work have received attention in this study because they focus on the areas of concern. In general, these studies try to see how the media can control and determine people’s life. The two theories used are Cultural Imperialism Theory, whose main proponent is Herbert Schiller and Technology Determinism theory whose proponents are Thorstein Veblen, Clarence Ayres and popularised by Marshall
Introduction The conjunction of late capitalism and the spread of new technologies have fostered the contemporary neoliberal globalisation, which is often perceived as a new period in world history, having – according to neoliberal proponents – brought about a very different international order. The essay will first explain the neoliberal narrative, presenting the reasons alluding to the perception that neoliberal globalisation is a new era, with the arguments that the world has been significantly reshaped, by being far more interconnected, ‘flattened’ and ‘decentred’ than ever before. The essay will then discuss globalisation and interconnection in the past, showing rather a continuation than a sharp contrast between past and modern times.
Besides, neoliberalism does not only attend to high-political issues, for instances, collective security, but also the low-politics in economic and cultural aspects. In the light of the main theme of neoliberalism, one may also conclude globalization is beneficial to all. Still, globalization would also engender some challenges, for instances, the North/ South division, to all. Therefore, this thesis destines to discuss the deficiencies and
It is everywhere in our changing world towards industrialization and there are more issues added regarding its influence to the society and to the individuals within the society. The information generated by the mass media plays a vital role in the society for new innovative ideas. The conflict view is how the media portrays its roles in providing a link to the different institutions wherein there exist divisions in the society. We have different patterns in coping with the media effects to fit our standards. The aim in this essay is to explore how the media influence us, its role, how media it is used, and how it is generated and link to other institutions.