Adorno and Horkeimer posit that the phenomenon of the mass-produced culture in cultural industry serves as a purpose to ensure the continued passivity and obedience of the capitalist mass consumers. Thus, the culture industry results in a commodification of human conciseness in which it denies the imagination and expression of the individuals and undermines the power and critical rationality of the
The neoliberal project, in its most basic form, is to disembed capital from these constraints, through the mass exodus of regulations and public, state-led programs. Throughout A Brief Introduction to Neoliberalism, David Harvey provides a cutting and, at times, loose critique of neoliberalism and its effect on the modern world. He argues that through the construction of consent, neoliberals are able to increase the power of the wealthy, especially in democratic societies. This occurs when political questions are made to equal cultural questions through persuasion and co-optation. Directly put, politicians and state actors use the meaning behind ‘freedom’ as a way to justify and construct consent to dissolve market regulations and privatize formerly public institutions.
Economics and freedom, according to Marx, are intertwined in such a way that they cannot be separated. Freedom is inherently correlated with economics, which is why Marx believes that the structure of capitalist society is unfit for a success. Freedom is determined by creative self-actualization which cannot be achieved in a capitalist society. Capitalism only benefits the elite. The labor of workers becomes a commodity that only profits the owner.
It is a conspiracy against the public to raise prices. It hates competition because competition lowers prices to a level which is fair, honest and earned under competitive environment. Adam Smith spoke of ‘the wretched spirit of monopoly’, the ‘mean rapacity, the monopolising spirit’ in which ‘the oppression of the poor must establish the monopoly of rich.’ Monopoly is exercised through market shares gained by buying up or bullying the present competitors out of, and the potential from, the market. The purpose is to earn maximum profit at the cost of consumers and rival competitors, more than the natural profit which the fair and free competition endures. It also destroys efficiency and discourages innovation.
Adorno and Horkheimer drew from Marx with regards to capitalism. According to Lorimer and Scannell (1994), “Following Marx, they saw the application of capitalist methods to cultural production as exploitative of the mass of the production” (p. 165). Adorno and Horkheimer believed that mass culture due to capitalism makes it homogenous. The audience then becomes homogenous and unified. Baofu (2009) further explains the culture industry as, “Popular culture is akin to a factory producing standardized cultural goods to manipulate the masses into passivity; the easy pleasures available through consumption of popular culture make people docile and content, no matter how difficult their economic circumstances.” (p. 184).
The Marxist position is that the mode of production does in fact determine the superstructure of political relations. Therefore, it is argued, history can be understood as of product of dialectical process- the contradiction between the evolving techniques of production and the resistant sociopolitical system. As for the concept of “national interest,” the national interest of a given nation-state is, of course, what its political and economic elite determines it to be” .The dominant idea of contemporary bourgeois thinking is that increasing international integration of economic activity, or “globalization” will lead to prosperity and peace for all. But globalization is not a concept that helps us understand the world around us. It is an ideological construct used to trumpet capital victory- to conceal the crisis ridden nature of the system and its
During the Gilded Age, greed is what motivated industrial innovation and for people to improve their ways of living. But with great responsibilities come great consequences, the consequence of greed is people seeing greed to be the same as being selfish. Despite this, the
Universities that promote higher education as a commodity for hedonistic gratification and a sure path to a well-paid career reduce people’s intellectual potential, limit personal and spiritual development and growth, and define people’s social status assisting in consumption (Molesworth, Scullion and Nixon, 2010). In such a way, educational marketing serves the propagandist purposes of capitalism and hegemony: guided by commercially propagandist messages, students lose the association of transformation with education and perceive it only as a commodity they can purchase without the need to work hard in the process of receiving
According to the Cambridge Dictionary, capitalism is “an economic, political, and social system in which property, business, and industry are privately owned, directed towards making the greatest possible profits for successful organizations and people” but, quoting T.S Eliot: “success is relative”. The aim of this essay is to analyze if the novella Seize the Day by Saul Bellow could be construed as a criticism of this system. To begin with, symbols play an important role. Even though the novella may appear simple in its style and narrative, there exists a rich complexity of ideas and sociological issues reflected on symbolism that still remain relevant today. In spite of the fact that it was written in the late 1950’s, its shrewd style does
Political ideology represent the interest, leaning, and preference of ruling class. Conservatism emphasis exist value of nature; emphasis inequality of the world; believe elitism, and conserve traditional values. Neoliberalism believe individuals’ struggling; advocate competence in free market; minimize the government control; and empower freedom for capital. Democratic socialism support private sector but strongly regulated to protect interest of stakeholders; support social welfares, education, and health care for citizens by government funding; support social security system for guarantee living standard of poverty; implement high tax rate, especially for high incomers; implement extensive social laws for protecting citizens basic rights; and positive in environmental protection. Socialism advocate ownership of public, instead of individual; emphasize national control of economy; and high rate of redistribution of wealth.