Atoms are the building blocks which form every known structure and substance in the universe. They are made up of 3 subatomic particles called protons, neutrons and electrons. Protons have a positive charge, neutrons have no charge and electrons have a negative charge. Neutrons and protons are approximately similar in size as they both have an atomic mass of 1. His mass is relative to an element on the period table called carbon, which consists of an atom with 12 protons.
In 1932 James Chadwick discovered a second particle in the nucleus, he fired alpha particles at beryllium and found that neutrons were released. He revised Bohr’s model of the atom to include a representation of both protons and neutrons in the visual diagram. Today we know that electrons orbit a nucleus made up of protons and neutrons and that the electrons can be described as both waves and
Together with Spitzer and James Clerk Maxwell data, these observations allowed the astronomers to calculate a star-forming rate of about 1,000 to 4,000 stars per year. At that rate, the galaxy needs only 50 million years, not very long on cosmic timescales, to grow into a galaxy equivalent to the most massive ones we see today. The Baby Boom galaxy is named that because its high number of stars generated per year. At that rate, the galaxy needs only 50 million years to create as many stars as the most massive galaxy ever observed. The discovery also challenges the accepted model for galaxy formation, which has most galaxies slowly bulking up by absorbing pieces of other galaxies, rather than growing internally.
Using alpha particles as bullets, Rutherford knocked hydrogen nuclei out of atoms of six elements: boron (B), fluorine (F), sodium (Na), aluminum (Al), phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). He named them protons, from the Greek for 'first', for they consisted of the first identified building blocks of the nuclei of all elements. He found the protons mass at 1,836 times as great as the mass of the electron. But there appeared something terribly wrong with Rutherford's model of the atom. The theory of electricity and magnetism predicted that opposite charges attract each other and the electrons should gradually lose energy and spiral inward.
Ernest’s contributions include: the invention of the early detector of radios waves, discovered the principle of half-life and that atoms were indestructible, etc. In an article called “Ernest 10 Major Contributions to Science” by Anirudh it states that “Rutherford discovered that every atom contains a nucleus where its positive charge, and most of its mass, is concentrated. His model of the atom thus contained the new feature of a relatively high central charge concentrated in a small volume of the atom and responsible for most of its mass.” With the help of the gold foil excitements he was able to figure out that an atom had a nucleus with a mass and a positive charge. Anirudh’s article also states that, “In 1917, Ernest Rutherford became the first person to deliberately transform one element into another.” He was able to to create the first nuclear reaction by converting nitrogen atoms into oxygen atoms with the help of alpha radiation. This helped prove his theory of the proton’s existence because when the alpha radiation occurred it turned the old element into a new element by removing two protons.
Starting off, why was Mercury named Mercury? The Romans only knew of several objects in the sky at this time, the Sun, the Moon, and the five brightest planets. Mercury was named after the Roman messenger god, as it traveled the fastest in the sky. As said from a page created by Wikipedia on the planet Mercury. Mercury is positioned as the closest planet in our solar system to our
He then came up with his first model of the Big Bang nucleosynthesis, thus gathering data. He then interpreted that data by explaining that “there must have been a primordial lump of neutrons that would decay into the first hydrogen nuclei” (Williams et al., n.d., p. 2). Gamow’s research then ventured to the “Exploration and Discovery” part of the flow chart, by asking questions about the abundance of heavier elements, and by making observations on his problems. For example, he explained that “no stable isotopes exist at the masses of five and eight” (Williams et al., n.d, p. 2). Gamow then returned to asking more questions and making more observations on Quantum
This extreme hot condition can affect the participants internal environment. The participant could enter into hyperthermia. Hyperthermia occurs when the core body temperature rises above 38.5 degrees Celsius , the body cannot thermoregulate properly and the body produces more heat than needed. Hyperthermia is caused by many things dehydration, hot environment , exercise and to some drugs , the heat regulating system can be overwhelmed , if not treated hyperthermia can be fatal. Hyperthermia is treated by rapidly lowering the body and core temperature.
Discovered in 1781, Uranus is the third largest planet in the solar system. Even though it is bright blue, it is still nearly impossible to spot with the naked eye because it is the seventh planet from the sun. The blue color is due to the composition, which is 83% hydrogen, 15% helium, and 2% methane. The methane absorbs red light, which is why we see the planet as a bluish-green color. The clouds of Uranus are similar to the
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 History background and action level Radon is a gaseous highly radioactive element discovered by English physicist Ernest Rutherford in 1899. The discovery is also credited to German physicist Friedrich Ernst Dorn in 1900. More specifically, Rutherford discovered radon's alpha radiation and Dorn discovered that radium was releasing a gas. Radon (chemical symbol Rn) is a naturally occurring radioactive gas found in soils, rock, and water throughout the U.S. It has numerous different isotopes, but radon-220, and radon-222 are the most common (EPA, 2009).
The observed emission data for the different elements did not look how they were supposed to. However the “peaks” for Hydrogen were found to be 534.52 and 631.24, 534.70 and 569.11 for Helium and 529.73 and 630.71 for Mercury. The Rydberg’s Constant found to 1.1x107 8.5x104 while the known constant is 10967758.34m-1. The percent error of 0.29% and the accuracy of this reading is 99.7. The slope and intercept of the linear regression line is -0.01 3.3x10-5 and 0.02x10-1 1.9x10-6 respectfully.
This atom contains 30 protons and 30 electrons. It can be found in the 4th period and has 4 energy levels. In the first energy level there are 2 electrons. In the second there are 8 electrons. In the third, there are 18 electrons and in the fourth level, also known as the Valence shell has 2 valence electrons.
Or sometimes a molecular cloud. They both contain many different types of atoms. For examples metals and gasses. The clouds are huge in size. The average temperature of an interstellar cloud are about 10 K. The density is about 1 Billion particles.