Preterm birth, defined as childbirth occurring at less than 37 weeks or 259 days of gestation, is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity and has long-term antithetical consequences for health.1-3 Children who are born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, sensory deficits, learning disabilities and respiratory illnesses compared with children born full term. The morbidity related with preterm birth often extends to later life, resulting in enormous physical, psychological and economic costs.4, 5 Preterm children are at greater risk of motor impairments and these impairments often persist into adolescence. Premature infants comprise a special group of high-risk infants. Their motor development is distinct from that of healthy full - term infants and their occurrence of motor disorders is higher than their incidence of recognition and behavioral disorders.6 About 10 – 20% of all pregnancies and 9% of neonates are at risk7. According to international studies, 2.6 – 10% of neonates with birth weight of <1500 g).
Many of us do not realize the importance of a baby in the womb developing safely as well as correctly. Prenatal Development is the period in development in which a baby is conceived until the moment it is welcomed into the world. Baby’s take an average of thirty-eight to forty weeks to fully develop and prepare for birth. This time period of nine months is broken down into three periods in which the baby spends growing from a tiny mass of cells into a functional, healthy, happy baby. There are three main stages that a baby must go into, while in the womb: The Germinal Stage, The Embryonic Stage, and The Fetal Stage.
According to UNICEF, worldwide neonatal mortality rate fell by 47 per cent between 1990 and 2015 from 36 to 19 deaths per 1,000 live births. Over the same period, the number of newborn babies who died within the first 28 days of life declined from 5.1 million to 2.7
Vision and processing of visual information by brain are learned skills. From birth, babies begin exploring the wonders in the world with their eyes. A newborn infant, or neonate, is a child under 28 days of age. During these first 28 days of life, the child is at highest risk of dying. It is thus crucial that appropriate feeding and care are provided during this period, both to improve the child’s chances of survival and to lay the foundations for a healthy life.13 Ocular development: The preterm infant has a shortened intrauterine period and is therefore removed from an environment uniquely designed for protection, growth, and the appropriate stimulation of the fetus.
Faculty of pharmacy Pharmaceutics department Assignment topic: Neonatal paternal nutrition Course title: Hospital pharmacy Course code: PT521 Lab group: C Submitted to: Dr.Dalia Abdel Aty Prepared by: Zaid Mohammed Areed – 112955 Due date: 13 may 2016 Spring 2016 Introduction parenteral nutritional support is important in our life for infants which is cant get enough of nutrient due to several reasons like problem in GIT which is maybe continuous for several weeks or more . so the parenteral nutrition is very important (Dudrick, 2009). Neonatal parenteral nutrition (PN) plays an important role in the management of sick and growing preterm and term infants, and so they are willingly present in the hospitals, as PN plays also an important role in the nutritional support for the babies who have feeding problems.
Neonatal care has greatly improved in recent years and it has become possible for very low birth weight or asphyxiated newborns to survive. Until a few years ago, many of these babies inevitably died early. Now we can prolong their life, but with handicaps in many cases. A recent debate centred on whether it is ethical to withhold or withdraw therapy, sometimes in an active way, allowing newborns, presumed unable to lead a normal life, to die. 1,2,3,4,5,6 Attitudes on this ethical question in neonatal intensive care units of four Western countries,7 France,8 The Netherlands,9 and other states10 have been published.
For instance, a case control study in Gilgel Gibe revealed that 42% of post neonatal and 22.6% of neonatal mortality were attributable to pneumonia (16). Determinants of under- five pneumonia Socio demographic characteristics Both the incidence of and mortality from pneumonia widely vary across the age of the child where children younger than 2 years of age disproportionately bear about 81% of the overall under- five pneumonia morbidity burden (17) . There is also evidences on the difference in incidence of pneumonia between boys and girls, with the higher episodes of pneumonia occurred among boys ( 8). However, this result is in contrary to other finding where gender of the child did not affect the occurrence of child hood pneumonia (17). Being the socio cultural factor, birth order is among the lists of
Literature Review The Importance and Impact of Proper Health and Maternal Nutritional Status along with Breastfeeding on the Survival of Infants and Children: In the past two decades, child mortality has decreased substantially; however, around seven million children under the age of five years still die on a yearly basis. Most of these deaths are from preventable causes. Out of the seven million deaths it is estimated that newborns alone constitute almost half of it. Efforts in reducing neonatal mortality rates have been made and one of the most important factors is having immediate breastfeeding, which is defined as putting the baby to the mother’s breast within an hour after birth in order to help lower mortality. Breastfeeding
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF "FLASH CARD" IN IMPROVING THE KNOWLEDGE OF MOTHERS ABOUT PREGNANCY INTRODUCTION Pregnancy is the growth and development of an intrauterine fetus starting from conception to the onset of true labour that marks the beginning of the intrapartum period and the duration of normal pregnancy is 280 days (40 weeks or 9 months 7 days) calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period. World Health Organization (WHO) socialises that pregnancy is a special thing and needs special attention from all family members. Because a normal pregnancy could at any time change into an emergency condition that can result in maternal death. One cause of high mortality rate the mother is due to lack of knowledge about pregnancy. To reduce
SAFE DELIVERY- According to WHO report, the delivery should be conducted by skilled doctors/ nurse/ auxiliary nurse midwife (ANM) birth attendance who have the skills to manage normal deliveries and recognize the onset of complications in hygienic conditions. POSTNATAL CARE- The postpartum period lasts to about 42 days beginning right after the baby is born. Women who received check-up during postpartum period is considered to have received postnatal care. All the three dependent variables are dummy variables (that is 1 = service is received, 0 = otherwise). Therefore, binary logistic regression is used to understand the determinants of maternal health care.