Chapter 43 and 45 Nervous and Endocrine System
1. Discuss how the endocrine and nervous systems become involved when a student feels stress – such as that associated with an upcoming exam. (4 points).
The Hypothalamus begins the body’s response to stress by sending a polypeptide hormone to the pituitary gland, which allows for it to release ACTH to work with the adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla, which is in the autonomic nervous system, will then secrete, once action potential is reached, epinephrine (Adrenaline) into the blood. Epinephrine brings its effects to target receptors, which will in turn cause changes in the body. Adrenaline leads the Sympathetic Nervous System to become more prominent and inhibit the action of the Parasympathetic system in the body. Thus, the body focuses less on housekeeping and more on fighting or fleeing. It increases the amount of oxygen the lungs intake and the level of blood glucose. Digestion, salivation, and bladder are inhibited from doing their jobs. The muscles are more prepared and the person feels as though they have more strength. Eventually the body will come to the conclusion it is no longer stressed, and will let digestion, salivation, and the bladder to function like normal. The lungs will not take in as much air and the pupils will constrict. Blood glucose will decrease …show more content…
Describe how the hormones of the pancreas regulate the concentration of glucose in the blood (4 points).
Insulin is used by the pancreas in response to when the body’s level of blood glucose is too high, and glucagon is inhibited. Insulin performs the job of taking glucose into the liver and helps store glucose as glycogen within the body. When the blood glucose level of the body gets to low the body will inhibit the secretion of insulin, so that glucagon can do its job. What glucagon does is it takes the stored glycogen and lets it be released back out into the bloodstream so the body can have more energy.
Chapter 46: Skeletal and
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The supply of glucose to the brain and immune system is important as competitors constantly rely on instantaneous decision making to ensure they make effective strategic moves. Glucagon is the hormone which ultimately increases blood glucose concentration by breaking down stored glycogen in muscle and fat cells, increasing the breakdown of fats and increasing liver glucose production. Each of these effects lead to an increased amount of glucose present in the bloodstream, meaning more energy for body cells. When the level of glucose in the bloodstream drops, more glucose is required in order to provide ATP for energy. The secretion of insulin by beta cells is inhibited
Often called the fight or flight reflex, stress has been known to save people’s lives, whether it be on a battlefield or some dangerous situation back home. Too much stress ultimately leads to health problems, but too little stress isn’t good for us either. When we go too long without a sharp stimulating response, the body loses its ability to handle stress properly (Tom Scheve, 2009). Somewhere between too much, and too little stress can actually be good for you, helping you perform under pressure. It is when someone cannot turn off that fight or flight feeling that it begins to show its negative effects.
• Question 27 1 out of 2 points Which of the following is true of insulin? Select all that apply. Selected Answers: A. it is secreted when serum glucose levels are elevated B. it acts as the primary catabolic hormone C. it stimulates gluconeogenesis D. it binds to GLUT 4 receptors on the cell membrane Answers: A. it is secreted when serum glucose levels are elevated B. it acts as the primary catabolic hormone C. it stimulates gluconeogenesis D. it binds to GLUT 4 receptors on the cell membrane Response Feedback: CHO PPT Part 1 Slides 34-7 • Question 28 1 out of 1 points Gluconeogenesis is sometimes referred to as the reverse of which pathway?
This natural response is only intended to be for brief periods. So therefore, if a person is experiencing chronic stress, the increased release of adrenaline has implications on the physical health of the person in numerous different ways, such as fatigue, high blood pressure, headaches and so forth. This results in a weakening of the immune system so the person become more susceptible to physical infirmities. (Ader, R. & Cohen, N.
Our bodies take in the glucose and turn it into energy we can then use. When we let glucose in, we are raising our insulin and glucose levels. Insulin is the hormone in people’s bodies that grants glucose access into our bloodstreams. However, insulin keeps our blood levels from raising or lowering, and it stores the fat to use for energy later on. Unfortunately, people have no control over the insulin function, though they do have control over the types of food they eat that contain certain amounts of glucose.
In order for our body to use the glucose, it must enter into our cells first. The pancreas produces a hormone called insulin, a chemical messenger for the entry of glucose into the cells. As the blood glucose levels rise after a meal insulin is released into the bloodstream and sets process into motion to trigger glucose to enter into the cells. When the glucose enters into the cells the amount of glucose in the bloodstream
My research paper will be focusing on the HPA (Hypothalamus-Pituitary Gland-Adrenal Gland) axis activation in response to stress with a focus on the harmful side effects of the end product of the HPA axis, cortisol hormone. I would also like to bring to attention how stress response can vary in different individuals with certain predisposition that can cause them to have severe physical responses to stress later in life, such as diabetes and cardiac health issues. My lens will be focusing on how college students, in particular, cope with stress while highlighting which coping methods they are using and evaluating how effective they are. Word Count: 104 Annotated Bibliography Brougham, Ruby R., et al.
Many people once thought that diseases were in no way beneficial. However the book, "Survival of the Sickest" by Dr. Sharon Moalem, tells us about how certain diseases had an important role in the survival of our ancestors. Even though diseases are deadly and harmful, they helped our ancestors survive throughout history. Out of the many diseases stated throughout the book, I chose hemochromatosis, diabetes, and favism. Hemochromatosis is a hereditary disease that affects how the body processes iron.
This energy comes from glucose through a process called glycolysis, in which glucose is broken down or metabolized into a substance called pyruvate through a series of steps. When the body has plenty of oxygen, pyruvate is shuttled to an aerobic pathway to be further broken down for more energy. But when oxygen is limited, the body temporarily converts pyruvate into a substance called lactate, which allows glucose breakdown to continue the production of energy. The working muscle cells can continue this type of anaerobic energy production at high rates for one to three minutes, during which time lactate can accumulate to high levels.
These two hormones help regulate plasma glucose, also referred to as blood glucose, levels. Glucagon increases blood glucose and Insulin decreases blood glucose levels. When blood glucose levels are too low, Glucagon sends a message for the glycogen to be broken down into glucose to be released into the blood.
The Endocrine System basically produces a special substance that's released into the body, which then travels through the bloodstream and targets certain tissues and/or organs of the body and it's known as our hormones, with these hormones some could have one of two actions to occur and one could be short-term changes such as a rapid heartbeat or sweaty palms and there's long-term changes such as a development problem within the bones and muscles, there are other hormones for which their duties are to make sure the body is properly maintained with fluids, nutrients, and metabolism so that the body is functioning properly as it should. Note: that when the hormones enter the body they only affect the targeted organs or tissues that the receptors are targeted toward. The major organs of this system are a host of glands, the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreatic, pineal, the female (ovaries), and the male
The adrenals are known for making the hormone adrenaline but also, they make the corticosteroids which affect your metabolism and sexual function. The pancreas is part of the the digestive system and the endocrine system. It makes the hormones insulin and glucagon. These help ensure you have the right amount of sugar in your bloodstream and your cells. If you don 't make any insulin, which is the case for people with type one diabetes, your blood sugar levels can get dangerously high and if the body makes some insulin but not enough, that is type two diabetes.
INTRODUCTION Stress is a word derived from Latin word “Stingere” meaning to draw tight. (Mojoyinola, 2008) Stress is your body’s way of responding to any kind of demand or threat. When you feel threatened, your nervous system responds by releasing a flood of stress hormones, and including adrenaline and cortisol, which rouse the body for emergency action. Your heart pounds faster, muscles tighten, blood pressure rises, breath quickens, and your senses become sharper. These physical changes increase your strength and stamina, speed your reaction time, and enhance your focus.
According to Martini, F., Tallitsch, R., Nath, J., (2018), the ANS functions outside of our conscious awareness and makes routine adjustments in our body’s systems (Martini, Tallitsch, & Nath, 2018, p. 450). The autonomic nervous system helps maintain the homeostasis of our bodies by regulating body temperature and coordinating cardiovascular, repertory, digestive, excretory, and reproductive functions. Efferent axons innervate the visceral organs and the efferent nerve fibers and ganglia of the ANS organize in two systems or divisions. The sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division. The sympathetic division is most active during times of stress, exertion, or emergency, also known as “flight or fight”.