immune systems. The role of the nervous system in the activation of immune response and vice-
The brain is the most complex and magnificent organ of the human body. It controls the muscle movements, the secretions of glands,breathing and internal temperature. Every creative thought, feeling, and plan is developed by the brain. The brain acts as the body’s control center. The human brain can be divided into the forebrain, mid-brain and hind-brain. The cerebellum and brain stem constitute the hind brain. The tectum and the cerebral peduncles form the mid-brain. The forebrain is made of the diencephalon, cerebrum, meninges and cerebro-spinal fluid.
Pons - I would keep this part of the brain because it help transmit messages between several parts of the brain. It also connects the upper and lower parts of the brain.
The nervous system is the body's decision and communication center. The central nervous system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are made of nerves. The brain is made of three main parts which are the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons, and medulla. Often the midbrain, pons, and medulla are referred to together as the brainstem. The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections which called lobes. These
It consists of the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The primary function of the sympathetic system is to stimulate your fight-or-flight response, while the parasympathetic system enables you to maintain normal functions such as digesting and keeping the body at rest.
Cranial nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system, PNS. They relay motor and sensory data to the oral musculature and muscles of the pharynx and larynx. This information is pivotal for operating proper speech and swallowing mechanisms. Therefore, it is important that the speech-language pathologist be familiar with the name, distribution, and anatomy of all of the cranial nerves. It is also necessary to know the testing procedures involved with cranial nerves as well as signs of abnormal functioning in order to better serve clients.
The two branches of the ANS system are SNS which stands for sympathetic nervous system and the PNS which stands for parasympathetic nervous system. The SNS triggers the “fight or flight” response, it originated in the spinal cord. SNS prepares the body to put our energy and to protect it from effects of injury. SNS shuts the gut down, speeds up the heart, increases blood pressure, dilates pupils, makes more glucose available in the blood for energy. PNS is sometimes referred to as the “rest and digest” system. The PNS acts to replace and recover from the activities of living. The PNS acts in the opposite of SNS, but they are complementary to one another.
Each of these lobes has different functions from each other. On the other hand, the neurotransmitters are the information carriers, they carry electrochemical signals to and from the brain throughout the entire body in human beings. Then, we have the nervous system which can actually be divided into two parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) where the brain and spinal cord are parts of the CNS. The PNS can still be divided into two specific parts, the somatic nervous system (SNS) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). While the SNS directs the movements of the skeletal muscles, the ANS regulates involuntary processes such as the heart beating, breathing, blood pressure, and blood sugar level. When compared to other animals’ brains, the human brain is a more complex central nervous system. The reason for this is due to the proficiency of the human brain to continuously develop both in the structure and function of numerous cells in it as a responsive mechanism towards new incoming information, experiences, and even shock, which is also known as brain plasticity. (Sanders
The hindbrain is the “oldest brain region” (Feist et al., 2015). Hindbrain is located on bottom end of brain and thus, it is directly attached to the spinal cord. Hindbrain region include three important parts: the medulla, the pons, and cerebellum; these three structures play important roles in regulating breathing, heart rate, and other functions (Feist et al., 2015). Specifically, medulla is responsible for controlling breathing and heart rate. Reflexes such as swallowing, sneezing, and vomiting are
In the white matter area of the medulla oblongata contains ascending and descending nerve tracks which cross the brain and spinal cord. The protrusions in the white matter forms the pyramids with corticospinal nerve connect the cerebrum with spinal cord which controls the movement of voluntary muscles. These nerve tracks cross the left side to the right side of the body. The medulla regulates the force and heart rate through the cardiovascular system and medullary rhythmic area of respiratory center controls the respiratory processes. Other functions are controlling reflexes for vomiting, swallowing, sneezing and coughing and hiccupping. On the posterior side of the medulla contain gracile and cuneate nuclei related with sensation of touch, pressure, vibrations and consciousness. The gustatory or taste pathways from tongue to the brain are carried by the gustatory nuclei. The cochlear nuclei and the vestibular nuclei carries message to the brain. The vestibular nuclei also receive sensory information for posture and balance. Medulla functioning takes place through vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagus, accessory and hypoglossal
The human body consists of eleven major organ systems that maintain homeostasis: the skeletal, muscular, circulatory, nervous, respiratory, digestive, urinary, endocrine, reproductive, integumentary and lymphatic systems. These organ systems are dependent on each other to keep the human body in homeostasis. For example, the nervous and endocrine systems coordinate functions of other body systems because they allow information to be communicated throughout the body. The nervous system consists of the brain, nerves, and spinal cord. It is the fast acting control system because it responds to internal and external changes throughout the body. The integumentary system forms external covering and protects deeper tissue from injury- it includes hair,
Its main functions are to relay information to and from the central nervous system (CNS), and control the involuntary system of the body (Starkey, et al., 2011).
Human body is one of the most complex structures. It has billions of microscopic parts that work together in perfect harmony. The human body consists of billions of smaller structures. These are of four major types:
spinal cord. The brainstem is like a hard drive of a computer and it is the main control
The human body consist of 11 body system that help the body functions these 12 body systems along with knowing how they function with the 7 major chakras can help you live a more balance and harmonious life. First let us learn about the 11 body system and there functions.