Introduction The Tang dynasty is regarded as the Gold Age of Chinese history, and it is also considered as a cosmopolitan empire, which was open to various cultures and intertwined with different religions and people. However, some scholars argue that the cosmopolitan Tang empire had gone after the rebellion of An Lushan (755-763). Instead, the Tang intellectuals had growing xenophobia and were cautious with foreigners and foreign culture. However, is it a myth or reality? This paper will try to reconstruct the historical background regarding the “xenophobia” and the frontier poems in Tang and the rhetorical use of Non-Chinese in Chinese texts during the mid-imperial China.
Many famous visual artists lived during this era, such as the renowned painters Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, and Zhou Fang. There was a rich variety of historical literature compiled by scholars, as well as encyclopedias and books on geography. There were many notable innovations during the Tang, including the development of woodblock printing, the government compilations of materia medica, improvements in cartography and the application of hydraulics to power air conditioning fans. The religious and philosophical ideology of Buddhism became a major aspect of Chinese culture, with native Chinese sects becoming the most prominent. However, Buddhism would eventually be persecuted by the state and would decline in influence.
During the warring time period, 479 BCE - 221 BCE, many Chinese philosophies were created. The Warring Period was a time of conflict between different feudal states. Some of the conflict was resolved using various philosophies. Two popular philosophies created during that time were Mohism and Legalism. Mohism “became influential when technical intelligence began to challenge traditional priest craft in ancient China” (philosophy.hku.hk).
Laozi is teaching us to look at things from a different perspective and appreciate the balance of yin and yang. Similar to Confucius, Laozi also sought out a solution to create harmony in a world full of chaos and fragmentation. But Laozi found the solution through Daosim. The three ideas, the Dao, wuwei and yin and yang, are three key concepts in Daoism that leads to the harmony that Laozi strived for. These ideas, although created hundreds of years ago, still deeply influence Chinese thinking and culture
1) What was Mao Zedong seeking to accomplish with the Cultural Revolution? During the time of the Cultural Revolution Mao Zedong was seeking to carry out the reassertion of his authority over the Chinese Government; "He wished to create a truly new relationship among party, people, and the exercise of revolutionary power." (Adler & Pouwels pg. 642) Within the 1960s Mao Zedong became strongly convinced the Soviet Union current leadership of China at the time was "suffocated by bureaucratization" (Adler & Pouwels pg.642) while Mao Zedong was strong-minded that China would not fall into the same trap the Soviet Union did. Mao Zedong wanted to rid China of every person young and old who reverenced Chinese tradition.
Clashes over power and transitions across dynasties and lineages defines modern China. The intermingling of various cultures and walks of life, are a result of the warring dynasties. Constant usurping of power, decentralized powers create this melting pot. To understand modern China, it is important to pay homage to the exemplary patrons: Ancient Dynasties, ranging from Neolithic patriarchies to centralized empires. While many of these dynasties were separated by centuries and kilometers, an examination in the process of their ambition can reveal details about their impact on modernity.
Autonomy and individualism are given preference by the transcendentalists. Disappointment, discontent and distress affected the writers of Realism after the industrial revolution in America. Modernism can be considered as a branch of realism in American literature which has motivated the writers to go ahead with a new and novel style. This movement was initiated with the hope to change the mind-set of the
Ideas are powerful. Their continuous use has often pushed people to go further - to assess themselves time and time again. Not all ideas succeed, but the ones that do leave a lasting impact on people and challenge established ones to the very core. The Enlightenment was defined by intellectuals who reevaluated existing ideas of rule government and society in a movement that would impact the western world. Western government and society was influenced by the Enlightenment, a movement where intellectuals developed ideas that challenged and reevaluated established ones.
Khublai Khan just before the 1300’s has captured all of china by mere force but instead of changing china completely he changes the culture of the mongols. Khubilai Khan Built chinese capitals, took chinese traditions, created a Chinese dynasty and took their names. Khubilai Khan wanted to be the emperor of china instead of being a true mongal. He felt that he had to unify China and made the core culture Chinese, not Mongol. Khubilai Khan wanted to the win the Chinese over so he did not just create the core culture but he changed his own culture as well.
After the death of Yuan Shikai in 1916 China would enter the Warlord Era. The Warlord Era, which lasted from 1916-1928, was a period were a lack of strong centralized government meant there could be experimentation in the realm of education. World War I provoked strong feelings of nationalism within the Chinese populace. It was also during this chaotic Republican Era that institutions would gradually develop and mature albeit through an unconventional Western approach. These universities were finally able to achieve a balance between Chinese nationalism and its ability to be successful in the modern world.