Foucault discourse analysis in relation to human knowledge is subjected to language and the power struggle. He refers to power as being productive and universal everywhere within society. Foucault’s approach to discourse analysis in representation holds that discourse itself is a culturally manufactured to represent
Critical Discourse Analysis deals with social orders which are historically situated. Critical Discourse Analysis deals with social orders and social processes which can be individual. Critical Discourse Analysis deals with ideology. Critical Discourse Analysis deals with power and power relations both individual and social. It is observed that power is the main part in the social life.
What has been sacrificed in the contemporary era is not literary culture itself, but rather its adherents' own belief in it. The world that Birkerts constructs is not one of promise, but of mourning, and in identifying with his arguments, we bear witness to a funeral rather than a rebirth. The passion with which he and similar critics declare the end of literature constitute a world where that end has already occurred, instead of an argument for
New Criticism vs Structuralism New Criticism · Focus on “the text itself”; don’t mind the author and his/her background/biography, trust the tale not the teller; must do a close reading; must be objective and put own ideas aside · Don’t pay attention to your feelings · Formal elements (plot, setting, characterization) · Timeless verbal object · Stick to the text, quote directly; NO paraphrasing · Intentional Fallacy: trying to judge a work of art by assuming its intent/purpose of the artist who created it · Affective Fallacy: supposed error of judging a text on the basis of its emotional effects on a reader · Organic Unity: working together of all parts to make an inseparable whole · Critics
social norms, culture, mentality, hidden intentions and pragmatic elements, such as tone, intonation, facial expressions gestures, etc. All of them form a context of situation in which the language was used and we will not give adequate interpretation of the language without them. So, the universe of discourse which is the total context of facts, things, relations , ideas , etc., implied or assumed in a given discussion or discourse is very important when analyzing meanings .The complete meaning of a written or spoken discourse can be fully understood from the context rather than the sentence alone . It is also understood by examining the
We know that life in reality gives no obvious moral lessons to the observer. So, how a realistic portrayal of life could be didactic and moralistic, in the strict sense of the term and serve as an honest, frank and realistic portrayal of life, simultaneously. The question also arises that how a writer can become a moralist on one hand and depicts an honest representation of life on the other hand. Does it mean that a writer must instruct and teach at the cost of realism? Does the Critic want Shakespeare to be an instructor of life instead of giving a true representation of life in his works?
In the postcolonial perspective, the tradition - and its cultural products - whenever understood as something fixed in time, immutable, and set apart from the social and economic dimensions, may become infertile objects that do not assist the conquest of or the access to the social rights, revealing a closed vision of cultural identity (BHABHA, 2013). An essentialist look in pursuit of cultural authenticity may even hamper this access, even though it seeks the affirmation of these peoples' rights. Mota (2008) explains that in this process the traditional communities try to search for validation of its cultural capital for 'to prove' to the agencies that they have rights for the land. For that purpose, they may have to go in accordance with the expected image of an 'authentic Indian', using an essentialist gesture, which is grounded on a notion of "fixed pureness," over their own culture. Another aspect that needs to be taken into consideration, as Coast (2012) affirms, is the fact that the notion of multiculturalism may determine a practice that naturalizes inequity by confusing tradition and
To rank Jürgen Habermas’ idea on ‘project of modernity’ against Jean-François Lyotard’s postmodern critique is a dilemma because both have convincing and substantial arguments to justify their beliefs respectively. While Habermas considered bringing together art and life imperative so that the project on modernity can continue to flourish, Lyotard reckoned the importance of change – separating art from life as the contemporary world is too diverse to be represented in art. The essence of Habermas’ argument “modernity as an incomplete project” (d'Entrèves and Benhabib 38) lies on the fact that he recognized the need to ‘preserve’ and continue the project on modernity. Habermas realized aestheticism, or ‘art for art’s sake’, had led to a situation where art can no longer be understood by people and cannot explain its presence in the modern world. The remedy for art’s positioning in the modern world, as Habermas reckoned, was to continue with the project.
Historical Criticism insisted that to understand a literary piece, we need to understand the author's biography and social background, ideas circulating at the time, and the cultural milieu. This school of criticism fell into disfavor as the New Critics emerged. New Historicism seeks to find meaning in a text by considering the work within the framework of the prevailing ideas and assumptions of its historical era. New Historicists concern themselves with the political function of literature and with the concept of power, the intricate means by which cultures produce and reproduce themselves. These critics focus on revealing the historically specific model of truth and authority (not a "truth" but a "cultural construct") reflected in a given
This theory regards the social context in which the language is used as crucial. Critical Discourse Analysis directs much of its attention and dedicates a substantial amount of research to the relation between language and power. Presently the term CDA is used to denote the scholars’ critical linguistic approach, in line with which larger discursive units of text are perceived as basic units of communication. CDA examines institutional, political,