Following the stereotypes, one can simplify the whole picture of the world and make it more comprehensible. But very often the stereotypes appear to be too generalized or wrong. One of the crucial social issues in the United States is constant racial stereotyping of ethnic minorities, which leads to the emergence of such phenomena as racism and discrimination. Brent Staples in his essay “Just Walk on By: Black Men and Public Space” and Judith Ortiz Cofer in her work “The Myth of the Latin Woman: Just Met a Girl Named Maria” both make several important observations about the biased attitude of the whites to ethnic minorities in the United States. Although both authors present their own life experiences and reveal the harmful consequences of racial stereotyping in the society their points of view on the ways of avoiding the conflict situations based on those misunderstandings are different.
But why have these systems evolved and been maintained? Though the systems are complex at every level, the concepts of ethnicity, power, capital, and loss aversion to these former all appear critical to the answer to this question. Both The New Jim Crow and 13th explain how slavery developed from existing socioeconomic conditions and needs. Planters wanted to maintain their modes of production and from there, profits. To do so, racialization of the workforce was a necessary step, for in the face of enlightenment thought, where all humans are born equal, what other option was there besides dehumanization?
His numerous work shed light on the extent of economic exploitation, cultural isolation, and segregation that dominated the society. The Mis-Education of the Negro is one of the controversial books by Woodson, which attempts to convince the blacks in America that they have accepted white domination as the consequence of being brainwashed. Woodson’s arguments in the book The Mis-Education of the Negro are solid, convincing, and applicable in the contemporary world. Some of the issues mentioned in the book, which were facing the African-Americans, are still relevant today. When the
Introduction Many people are or have become ignorant to the fact that racism still exists. They see racism on the news, hear about racism on the radio and from their families and friends, yet still don’t accept the fact that African Americans are still being held back from prospering by our very own American government. In The New Jim Crow, Michelle Alexander elaborates on the still very existing discrimination of colored people, especially of African Americans. She proves to us that the idea of “slavery” is being kept alive but in a new way till this very day. Michelle Alexander is a civil right lawyer and advocate which makes her a credible author as she has expertise in this topic.
For many African Americans during this time, that meant that you were freed as a slave only to be arrested and deemed a slave once again. How does this relate to mass or wrongful incarceration today? Well, what I'm trying to do is to create a timeline of how twisted the "judicial" system was and still is. I mention the confederacy because it is an accurate representation of how racist the roots of the United States are and also on a side note, how anti American the confederacy actually was. A concept that many do not seem to be aware of.
Moreover, while the mestizaje ideology supposedly created “racial democracy,” Telles and the PERLA scholars found that pigmentocracies are prevailing in Latin America with black and darker-skinned indigenous as well as mixed-race individuals experiencing the most socioeconomic hardships. Furthermore, racial democracy is not instilled in the general consciousness and these countries are now turning to multiculturalism and starting to tackle the issues of racial inequality, however inadequate these efforts may be. However, the data collection on all racial and ethnicity categories that people identify with as well as their skin color and hair texture must happen to adequately capture the extent of racial inequality in these countries—this issue of measurement and data collection might hinder potential racial progresses from
ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Alexander, M. (2012). The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (Rev. ed.). New York, NY: The New Press. Michelle Alexander in her book, "The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness" argues that law enforcement officials routinely racially profile minorities to deny them socially, politically, and economically as was accustomed in the Jim Crow era.
Even more when she explains how slavery, although no longer in the form it was before, has been masked into a different form being the mass incarceration of people of color when she mentions society’s colorblindness. With this in mind, one of the main reasons Alexander compares mass incarceration and Jim Crow South is due to many of those who are incarcerated being stripped of their rights, the very rights given to them by the Civil Rights Act. Once those who are incarcerated are let back out into society they are denied legally their rights. Rights such as voting, obtaining employment, housing, welfare, and are stigmatized as being the forefront that all who are black are offenders. This notion has led many to believe how similar the after effects of mass incarceration and Jim Crow South are.
Racism is a part of American history that can never be forgotten; a dark past that shows the constant mistreatment of African-Americans. Although African-Americans were freed from slavery in the 1860’s, discrimination continues to be seen today. Racism is defined as prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one 's own race is superior. The white supremacy woven into mainstream American culture led to the continued widespread exclusion of African-Americans. In the sporting world, race is a widely discussed topic that frequently comes up.
Because of this, whether we realize it or not, racist behavior is taught and passed on. Dismantling this requires dialogue, reflection on ourselves (and others), and relearning our behaviors. In some cases, racism is subtle and in others, it is obvious. Since the Civil Rights Movement, progress has emerged but ignorance and denial of the past and recurrence of history still exist among many. This is covered in the reading, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the