Abstract -This study proposed a two-dimensional lease contract – age and usage limits – for new and used equipment. Under the lease contract, the lessee agrees that an additional cost will be charged when the usage rate exceeds a threshold value. The lessor performs both preventive and corrective maintenance actions. The decision problem for the lessor is to find the optimal price of each lease option offered, and for the lessee is to select the best lease option. We modeled using a cooperative game theory formulation, and the optimal decisions for the lessor and the lessee are coordinated in order to reach a win-win solution.
Case Study: 1980 Japan RE Boom The governments main purpose weathere local of federal is to put their influence on land use for the “highest and Best use”. There are a few possible ways it can do this, some are: deregulation, regulation, or higher and lower taxes. This essay will discuss the issues that caused the Japanese market boom. I will summarize an answer the case, analyze the situation, the incentives that were gained from the roles of credit, and the government influenc it had in the market. In the article, “ The effect of bank credit on asset prices: Evidence from the Japanese real estate boom during the 1980s” it goes over on whether bank credits fuel assest process after seeing the comparision between banks losing their blue chip
They are expected to be committed, unwavering and unbiased to any administration in authority. This concept disallows them from being partisan in the discharge of the day to day duties. Most importantly, this concept helps to boost public assurance in the administration of government. To substantiate this, Harold Stein (1970) argued that public administration concepts like political neutrality and separation of powers contributed hugely to the furtherance of the
Housing is one of human’s basic needs to function. Lutz’s idea of basic needs and common good would support the idea of free housing because housing would be considered as one of necessities to be human. The article suggests ways to achieve
According to Larbi (2003) the introduction and transfer of a set of management techniques and practices, mostly associated with market and private-for-profit sectors, have been the driving forces to reform administration and management in government, in a variety of countries, notably the UK, New Zealand and Australia. Some of these practices have been applied in transitional and developing economies. These came to be known as the New Public Management. The decades of the 1980s and 1990s witnessed a transition from the Old Public Administration to the New Public Management. Robinson (2015), citing (Dunleavy and Hood, 1994; Denhardt and Denhardt, 2000; Osborne, 2006) argues that from 2000 there was a noticeable movement towards an emerging model variously termed the “new public service”, the “new public governance” or the “post-New Public Management”.
Objectives Primary objective of this thesis is to ensure a design that - Allows maximum room for individual expression, freedom and choice. - Design chaos and randomness predicting growth and activity pattern. - Attempt to define minimum normality – a “dwelling” e.g. instead of house. - Subjectivity or individualism has to be relative to this normality.
After about 18 years of monopoly of ICSL, the Government built-in the National Insurance Corporation in 1980 with the objective of creating competition. At the same time as ICSL acquired business through its Island wide branch network, National Insurance Corporation acquired business through its private sector Principal Agents. Both organizations had its overall benefits by way of enhanced service and speedier arrangement of claims. However, as the insurance penetration of the country was very low the need for private Insurance companies gathered momentum. In 1986, the amendment of the Control of Insurance Act No.25 of 1962 opened the doors for the private sector to venture into the field of insurance.
Introduction The developmental state theory includes the objective in advancing the economic growth by the political elites and it focuses on the state-led macroeconomic planning. The developmental state model is a part of the led-state models of development. The state- led macroeconomic planning in simpler terms mainly centralizes the involvement of the government in the economic planning, handling competition, managing the enterprises’ ownership and the financial planning for production (Ginsburg, 2001). This developmental state theory brings a huge impact on the administrative reform of a country and its government. The main target of an administrative reform is to produce improvement and advancement at a public sector, which is the society (Newman, 2002).
New Public Management refers to as a new approach in Public Administration that employs knowledge and experience in the traditional management to render the public services more efficient and effective (Vigoda, 2003). These reforms have been diversely named as managerialism (Pollitt, 1993), market-based public administration, entrepreneurial government (Osborne & Gaebler, 1993) and new public management (Hood, 1991). (Pollitt, 1995) identifies eight characteristics of new public management it includes: cost cutting; cutting budgets and havign more transparency while allocating resources; agencification of traditional bureaucratic organizations; delivery of public services is replaced by their purchase; setting up the market and quasi-market systems; decentralization in public sector organziations; emphasizing performance related targets, indicators and output objectives; introducing term contracts, performance-related pay and local determination of pay and conditions; accentuate on service delivery, standard setting and customer responsiveness. New Public Management (NPM) is a management philosophy and has been adopted by many governments since 1980’s. New Public Management is a broad and complex term that demonstrates public sector reforms around the world for about more than three decades in history.
In 1991 Allied bank and MCB bank were privatized and the obligation regarding was traded to consortium containing Ibrahim Leasing Limited and Ibrahim group. Obligation regarding was traded to Nishat Group lead consortium in 1991. HBL was privatized in 2003 when governing body of Pakistan steadily handover the organization control to Agha Khan Reserve for Monetary Improvement. In 2002 UBL was privatized with the proprietorship traded to most ideal Way Abu Dhabi cluster. The basic inspiration driving our study is to check the impact of privatization on productivity of banks in Pakistan.